Week-2-Information-Types-def-know-update

Week-2-Information-Types-def-know-update - EBS2023...

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EBS2023 Information Economics Information Economics - information, knowledge, Types & Update Faculty of Economics & Business Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
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Learning objectives Able to differentiate between information & knowledge Able to understand different type of information available Able to appreciate the types of information and its important in businesses and services in today business setting Important of information in corporate world decision making
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Phenomenon? What is phenomenon?
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physics – basic property as energy, matter biology – senses neurophysiology – brain processes psychology – behavior, perception cognitive science – cognition telecommunication, computer science – signals, bits philosophy – knowledge Business- profit, marketing, people behavior Economics- resources, demand, supply, production, international trade
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What is information? Several viewpoints, models emerged Shannon : source-channel-destination signals not content – not really applicable Cognitive: changes in cognitive structures content processing & effects Social: context, situation information seeking, tasks
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Shannon's information theory Developed a general model for communication systems, and a set of theoretical tools for analyzing such systems, by measuring information in terms of probabilities (numbers)
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Shannon … reducing uncertainty Defined information in terms of probabilities developed measure of the information we get from observing the occurrence of an event, BUT ignored any particular features of the event e.g. flipping a fair coin once will give us events h and t each with probability 1/2, and thus a single flip of a coin gives us - log 2 (1/2) = 1 bit ( B inary dig it) of information (whether it comes up h or t) Information measured in bits is the reduction in uncertainty in the mind of the receiver information (in bits) is the amount of uncertainty a measure eliminates
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Shannon’s impact Had great impact in treating of digital information as signals e.g maximizing capacities of channels; coding Had disappointing impact (despite many tries) where information is connected with meaning, context, humans, values the ideal to measure information in human terms is elusive but keep trying … 8
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Cognitive – basic idea: K(S) + ΔI = K(S + ΔS) ( Brookes) Information when operating on a knowledge structure produces an effect whereby the knowledge structure is changed “Information is differences that make a difference” (find who said it!) Actually, it only states the problem – “unoperational” in information systems involves cognitive, mental events only constructivists rejected it
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