roughgarden - joan roughgraden Introduction: Purpose of...

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joan roughgraden Introduction: Purpose of book- to confront biological theories that do not account for a large part of the population that does not fit into what science deems normal. - wants to offer different ways of interpreting animal behavior - establishes difference between male and female which is gamete size (female with larger gamete and male with smaller gamete) - suggests new theory called social selection which “accommodates variation in gender and sexuality” (6) - norm breakers such as female hyenas with penises are examined - sets up evidence for cooperation vs. individualism and uses term “genial gene” to oppose the common idea of the selfish gene (7) - norm breakers such as other cultures that accept transgendered people Native Americans, Polynesia, and India are all examples where this is true - explains that this is her interpretation of the facts - objects to the theory of sexual selection because it undermines female choice and adopting a different theory allows for variability Chapter 1 Sex and Diversity: - “all species have genetic diversity” she begins by setting up a standard of difference (13) - establishes that there is no one way for an animal to appear. Gives examples of robins and the lizards that change appearance in various geographical locations - points out the problems that arise from trying to establish distinct categories “in biology, nature abhors a category” (14) - diversity affirming affirms the idea that variation is good because it allows for adaptability in “ever-changing environmental conditions” (15) - distinguishes between the ideas of “best male” and “best match” and suggests that females do not choose males based on a hierarchy but both male and female seek a best match (15) - all female species do exist (whiptail lizard, fish) and also two kinds of females in some species of: grasshoppers, locusts, moths, mosquitoes, roaches, fruit flies, bees, turkeys, and chickens (16) - cost of sex: “sexual production cuts the population’s growth rate in half” (17) - benefit of sex: “survival over evolutionary time” (17) - species earn offspring rather than money for the investments they make - diversity is crucial for survival - asexual species do not die off when mutations occur, those without the mutations continue to thrive - “sexual reproduction is not a battle” (21) Chapter 2 Sex versus Gender: - sex: mixing of genes when reproducing (22) - social definitions of man and woman change over time and do not account for all people - biological standards of male and female do not match up with the social standards of man and
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roughgarden - joan roughgraden Introduction: Purpose of...

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