ANT 111 Final Exam Study Guide - Spring 2008

ANT 111 Final Exam Study Guide - Spring 2008 - ANT 111...

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ANT 111 Final Exam Study Guide ~ Spring 2008 Chapter 1: Anthropology and Human Diversity Key Terms to Know: Ethnography – the major research tool of cultural anthropology; includes both fieldwork among people in society and the written results of fieldwork Holism – an approach that considers culture, history, language, and biology essential to a complete understanding of human society Ethnocentrism – judging other cultures form the perspective of one’s own culture. The notion that one’s own culture is more beautiful, rational, and nearer to perfection than any other. Emic – examining society using concepts, categories, and distinctions that are meaningful to members of that culture Etic – examining society using concepts, categories, and rules derived from science; an outsider’s perspective, which produces analyses that members of the society being studied may not find meaningful Cultural Relativism – the notion that a culture should not be judged or evaluated according to the values of another culture. They must be analyzed with reference to their own histories and culture traits understood in terms of the cultural whole Key Questions: What are the goals of anthropology? To describe, analyze, and explain different cultures, to show how groups have adapted to their environments and given significance to their lives. Attempts to comprehend the entire human experience. Why do we say that anthropology is a 'binocular' field? What does it mean that anthropology is 'holistic'? What are the different meanings of 'holism'? To say that anthropology is holistic means What are the five major areas of anthropological specialization? Cultural, linguistic, archaeology, physical or biological, and applied anthropology What is ethnocentrism? What are its negative and positive aspects? What is the anthropological perspective on race? ****************************************************************** Chapter 2: Human Evolution Key Terms: Evolution – the change in the properties of populations of organisms that occur over time natural selection – the mechanism of evolutionary change; changes in traits of living organisms that occur over time as a result of differences in reproductive success among individuals 1
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adaptation - a change in the biological structure or life ways of an individual or population by which it becomes better fitted to survive and reproduce in its environment reproductive success - Charles Darwin - Key Questions: Who are our ( Homo sapiens ’) closest living primate relatives? How is “fitness” measured in evolutionary terms? What were Charles Darwin’s contributions to evolutionary theory? ********************************************************************** Chapter 3: Doing field work
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ANT 111 Final Exam Study Guide - Spring 2008 - ANT 111...

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