The%20Bureaucracy - A Fourth Branch of Government The...

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A Fourth Branch of Government?
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What  is a Bureaucracy? A: A system of organization and control based on three principles: 1. Hierarchical Authority 2. Job Specialization 3. Formalized Rules
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Hierarchical Authority  Chain of command Top down control Expedites organizations’ actions b/c it reduces conflict over who has the power to make decisions
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Job Specialization Responsibilities for each position clearly defined Exact, precise division of labor within the organization Results in efficiency b/c each individual focuses on a particular job or task
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Formalized Rules Standard operating procedures, policy manual(s), written guidelines, etc. so that the bureaucracy can conduct operations and/or carry out its functions Decisions are made quickly and consistently based on procedure and guidelines rather than personal inclinations or deliberation
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Quick Stats Federal bureaucracy employs more than 2.5 million people They are responsible for administering thousands of programs More than 90% of federal civil servants are hired based on merit
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Merit protects federal employees from being fired for political or partisan reasons Federal employees are given GS rankings from GS-1 to GS – 18 They have few rights of collective action Primary function is to administer policy
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5 Types of Organizations w/in  the Federal Bureaucracy  1. Executive Departments or Cabinet Departments 2. Independent Agencies 3. Regulatory Agencies 4. Government Corporations 5. Presidential Commissions
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Cabinet or Executive  Departments 14 of them Each headed by a Secretary that is a member of the president’s cabinet Responsible for establishing the department’s general policy and overseeing its operations E.g., Chertoff at Homeland Security
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Independent Agencies Narrower area of responsibility than Executive Departments E.g.’s, CIA, FBI, NASA, NSA
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Regulatory Agencies Created by Congress when there is a need to regulate an economic activity such as airline regulation Issue regulations, implement them, and determine compliance E.g.’s, SEC, EPA, FCC, FAA, FDA, etc.
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Government Corporations Charge clients for their services Governed by a board of directors Receive federal funding to help defray operating expenses Directors are appointed by president and approved by the Senate
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