toxicity_fillin - Introduction to Safety Chapter 1 Agenda...

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Safety
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Agenda Safety Topic Nature of Accidents (Chapter 1) Representation of Chemical Processes Toxicology (Chapter 2)
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Nature of Accidents Types of loss in large hydrocarbon-chemical plant accidents Type of Accident Probability of Occurrence Potential for Fatalities Potential for Economic Loss Fire High Low Intermediat e Explosion Intermediat e Intermediat e High Toxic Release Low High Low
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Why do accidents happen?
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What do we (engineers) do to prevent accidents? Inherently safer design Rely on chemistry and physics to prevent accidents rather than safety systems (controls, interlocks, redundancy, etc.) Minimize Substitute Moderate Simplify
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What do we (engineers) do to prevent accidents? Define hazards and design for safety Understand the hazards inherent in your system Risk assessments Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) Develop and follow standard operating procedures Understand how your facility works (including startup, shutdown, and fail-safes) Management of change
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Ways to Represent Chemical Processes Block Flow Diagram (BFD) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
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Block Flow Diagram Uses rectangles (blocks) to represent unit operations (i.e. reactors, columns, heaters, etc.) Illustrates the flow of a chemical process clearly, grouping together many components and neglecting small streams An overview of chemical process
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Example of a Block Flow Diagram
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Process Flow Diagrams More detail than BFDs Includes major equipment, valves, and can include some control elements Includes information from heat and material balances. Each major stream will have a temperature, pressure, and min/max/normal flow rate Multiple sheets are connected with arrows (labeled with drawing number)
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Example of a PFD
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Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams Highest level of detail
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