final study guide 1

final study guide 1 - Rita Fitch Theology FINAL study guide...

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Rita Fitch Theology – FINAL study guide 11 th Century Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) o Great Reformer o Goal: make Europe a Christian empire o Thought church should appoint clergy/bishops o Political agendas: Simony: buy your position in church Inheritance of land o Celibacy Children are expensive and get inheritance o Asceticism Purity, control of body Time/energy to devote to spiritual life o Investiture Crises 1076- Pope Gregory bans Henry Christians have no obligation to the King Henry evicts Pope Gregory 1122- Concordat of Worms - create structure of power 1196- pope Innocent III – derives power directly through God Bonafice VIII – declares dominion of the pope (spiritual, legal, economic, military) 1303- Philip IV arrests Bonafice centralizes power in France (next 6 popes) Great Schism (1378-1414) o Italian Pope Urban VI is in power non-Italians oppose and name a second pope (Clement VIII) 1409-1414 there are 3 popes o Effect on papal power Weakens authority of the pope as an individual Rise of councilor model Crusades o Pope Urban III (1095) calls for 1 st crusade To unite east and west To demonize Islam “true of God” among Christians Reclaim Jerusalem Die in war redemptive sacrifice 12 th Century Orthodoxy o Buildings/churches built
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o Regulation of church attendance o Faith and obedience to superiors o Penance – most important sacraments Marriage Baptism Eucharist Confession Holy orders Reconciliation Anointing the sick Work o Reevaluation of work of artisans/entertainers/merchants o Growth of trade, market, economy large money exchange o Workers organize guilds formed Church threatened Death and dying o Dramatic o Outcome isn’t known to observers (heaven or hell) o Persist anoints and gives Eucharist o Public bell rung in town o Females prepare body/males lead procession o Burial is according to wealth and close to living relatives o “dancing with death” death as an equalizer o Purgatory - middle place between heaven and hell Living can help dead move up by buying indulgences (reconciliations for sins) increases wealth of church increases need for clergy (business) Heresy o Made a science o Anti-church sentiment threatened unity/uniformity of the church 12 th – 14 th Centuries Polarization of rich and poor/powerful and powerless Population doubles in Europe (22-54 million) Economy grows Church o Increases material affairs legal system, Fees in money o Centralizes power authority becomes impersonal o Develops administrative bureaucracy o Presents power/authority as god-given (inhibits protest against change) o Takes charity seriously
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Mendicants – new type of clergy that sought a more literal imitation of Christ disdaining possessions of any kind practicing ministries in the world among laypeople simple living
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course MARKETING 1101` taught by Professor Casino during the Spring '08 term at Villanova.

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final study guide 1 - Rita Fitch Theology FINAL study guide...

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