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bio 102 exam 1

bio 102 exam 1 - Classification Chapter 23 Classification...

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Classification Chapter 23 Classification Systems 1. Is just any grouping of organisms called a Taxon ? Yes a taxon is a formal grouping of organisms at any level such as species , genus , or a phylum. 2. What is the relationship between taxonomy and systematics ? Systematics is the study of the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationship. Taxonomy is the science of naming describing and classifying organisms. Taxonomy is is an aspect of systematics. 3. Was the system of classification originally established by Linnaeus a natural classification system or an artificial classification system? 4. Place the following in the proper hierarchical order from most inclusive to least inclusive: class , family, genus, order, kingdom, phylum, species. Domain , Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus, Species The Species 1. According to the biological species concept one or more populations whose members are capable of interbreeding in nature to produce fertile offspring and do not interbreed with members of other species. Because members of a biological species do not interbreed with other species they do not exchange genetic material this is the reason species are distinct units. Although the biological species definition often explains what we see in nature it is often more practical to use anatomical features to define species. Morphospecies concept – species defined by there anatomical features are sometimes referred to as morphospecies. This is a practical way to define species as it applies equally well to living organisms fossils and asexual organisms. However this definition doesn't really account for the discontinuities between the species. Do they always lead to different conclusions? Why or Why not? 2. Linnaeus gave each species a binomen , a unique combination of two names: in which each species is assigned a unique two part name. The first part of a binomial scientific name designates the genus, and the second part is called the specific epithet. Evolution 1. Character state - The specific value taken by a character in a specific taxon or sequence (e.g., possessing green eyes, or glycine at position 12 of a particular protein). 2. Homologous characters - features derived from a common ancestor and therefore share common structural traits. The bones in a bat bat wings are homologous to the bones in the
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human arm even though each is used for a different purpose. 3. Analogous – are similar in appearance because they are adapted to similar needs but they are not derived from a common ancestor. The wings of a bat and insect are analogous. A good rule to follow is that complex structures that are similar in detail have probably evolved only once. When complex characters are lost they are never regained in the same form. Thus you can
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bio 102 exam 1 - Classification Chapter 23 Classification...

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