Psychology7A S99 Exam 1 Intro To Psychology

Psychology7A S99 Exam 1 Intro To Psychology - Psychology 7A...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 7A Introduction to Psychology Spring 1999 exam number I versionB name; . i: . signature:_ " _______—__‘____ rules for fur/tiny exam 1. The exam is closed book. You must place all books and material under your Seat before you open the exam. Failure to do so will result in receiving no credit for this exam. 2. Fill out your Scantron sheet exacffy as told. This must be done with care or your work will not get recorded. 3. After you are told to begin, pleoSe do so. Mark the Scantron precisely and erase any marks fully you wish to change. 4. As a strategy, skim the exam reading each question once. Answer the easy questions first. Save time to struggle over the harder ones. Eliminate wrong answers before you guess at the right answer. 5. If you need help, raise your hand. We will indicate for you to come up if you need help in understanding the question. We will provide no guidance as to which answer to pick. 6. When you are finished, bring your exam, the scantron and a picture ID up to the front to turn your exam in. Take all your materials with you and leave through the lower doors. YOU WILL NOT BE PERMITTED TO RETURN TO YOUR SEAT. 7. The answer key will be posted as announced. HOUR OF RISING Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B 7. Validity refers to . g;’@ a measure's ability to produce consistent results —3B) a measure's ability to assess the variable it is supposed to measure C) a measure‘s test-retest reliability as compared to an objective criterion D) a measure's temporal stability as compared to its internal consistency 8. Turning abstract concepts into a concrete variable as defined by some set of actions is known as ~33 A) operationalizing G3)tlhypothesizing C) theorizing D) generalizing 9. Assume that an individual has significant brain lesions confined to the hippocampus. The most likely psychological/behavioral impairment would involve . {A} emotional regulation B) speech production C) memory D) motor coordination 10. The trichromatic theory holds that . g’A) all colors are derived from three antagonistic color systems: black-white, blue-yellow, and l r- red-green B) the eye contains three types of receptors each of which is maximally sensitive to wavelengths of llght that produce sensations of either blue, green, or red C) afierimages are visual images that persist in opposite and predictable color schemes alter a stimulus has been removed D) black-white colors contribute to brightness and saturation while the other three color sensations of blue, green and red are responsible for hue i 1. The relaying of sensory information to the cerebral cortex is the most important function of the A) reticular formation B) hypothalamus C) thalamus D) cerebellum 12. Which of the following is in the correct order of transmission of information in vision? A) Rods and cones; optic nerve; bi-polar cells; ganglion cells Bi-polar cells; rods and cones; ganglion cells; optic nerve r>£§ Optic nerve; ganglion cells; bi-polar cells; rods and cones a l D) ) Rods and cones; bi—polar cells; ganglion cells; optic nerve 13. The staggering and slurred speech of an inebriated person is likely to be related to the altered functioning of the . A) motor cortex B) thalamus C) llimbic system D) cerebellum ’l‘ Page 2 Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B 31. The is critical for the regulation of such vital bodily processes as body temperature, blood-sugar levels, eating, sleeping, and sexual activity. A) tegmentum B) thalamus C) hypothalamus D)\cerebral cortex 32. A paradigm is defined as . A) a broad—based school of thought employed by a scientific community that shares many common elements but lacks a definitive method of research B) one of many perspectives that exist within a scientific community about which researchers develop and investigate various hypotheses C) a theoretical framework shared by a small number of scientists within a community who use it as their basis of scientific investigation ,D) a broad system of theoretical assumptions employed by a scientific community that includes If shared models, metaphors, and methods 33. The purpose of the dendrite is to A)? create collateral branches for communication B)/ receive enough stimulation to fire *fiC) receive information from adjacent cells D) pass information to other neurons 34. A researcher wants to determine the effect of background noise on the length of time it takes for a subject to fall asleep. The time it takes to fall asleep is a A) continuous, independent variable C) continuous, dependent variable B) categorical, dependent variable D) categorical, independent variable 35. A\measure's ability to produce consistent results is its . (Aiwalidity B) measurability C) reliability D) generalizability 4\ 36. is the process of converting physical energy (from the environment) into neural impulses. A) Difference thresholding B) Signal detection C)\ Transduction D) Neural encoding 37. Endorphins are chemicals that . iA)! lower or raise the threshold of neuron firing C) never cross the blood—brain barrier B) elevate mood and reduce pain D) increase alertness and reduce drowsiness 1 Page 6 Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream sustains the body‘s vital functions C) secretes transmitter substances D) enables neurotransmitters to communicate 19. (Th? Endocrine System is a collection of glands that 3/. 20. According to your textbook, generalizations between humans and other animals can be made across the lower levels of the nervous system because . fiA ‘ the lower neural structures of the brain were already in place before most species diverged 6;! all creatures use the higher levels of the brain for complex thought and the lower levels for vital functions C) the lower structures of the brain were developed later in each species than the rest of the brain D) while most animals use the higher levels of the brain for processing sensory information, humans and animals use the lower levels for complex thought 21 . In regard to sensation, a difference threshold is . A) the difference between the absolute threshold of one sensory modality and the absolute threshold of another B) the difference between the predicted absolute threshold of a stimulus and the actual threshold (C); the difference in intensity between two stimuli necessary to produce a just noticeable \' difference D) the difference between the determined difference threshold of a particular stimulus and thejnd 22. An infant begins to cry after seeing his mother react fearfully to the unexpected approach of a dog. ,The area of his brain that is most likely being stimulated is 1A)\thehippocampus B) the tegentum C) the tectum D) the amygdala 4'5 23. According to the evolutionary perspective, many human behaviors are prevalent in today's society because in the past . i 7’3 A) they helped our ancestors survive and produce offspring that would be more likely to survive B) they used to be viewed by other cultures as abnormal during times of natural selection eh. ‘ D) they elped animal species select offspring that would be more likely to survive 24. A psychologist arranges to pose as a prison guard in order to record the behaviors of inmates in an unobtrusive manner. This constitutes m A) quasi—experimentation C) correlational research B) random sampling D) naturalistic observation Page 4 Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B 14. According to the author, why do babies have such poor motor control? A} Babies have poor motor control because not all axons are myelinated at birth which means the transmission of neuron impulses is slow. B) Babies have poor motor control because the glial cells, normally used to deflect "unintended" messages, are not fully developed. C) Babies have poor motor control because the myelinated sheath along dendrites is not mature. D) Babies have poor motor control because the nodes of Ranvier have not yet formed. 15. The author infers that which of the following is a common mistake made by outsiders who try to interpret correlational research? They confuse positive and negative correlation. 3B) They mistake correlation for causation. C) They attempt to produce similar results in a laboratory. D) They predict an action based on a correlation. 16. A measure is internally consistent if A) it consistently relates to some objective criterion B) it has a tendency to yield relatively similar scores for the same individual over time £2) two different interviewers rate a subject similarly regarding a particular dimension D), several ways of asking the same question yield similar results 17. Both behaviorist and cognitive perspectives view organisms as machines that , but while most behaviorists object to the concept of mind and consider the mind a black box, cognitive psychologists respond to input with predictable output . . . have filled the "black box" with software B) generate continuous data when subjected to external stimuli . . . believe the "black box" represents the sub-conscious mind C) should be subjected to the experimental method . . . infer mental processes from case studies as well as experimentation D) require external stimuli to become motivated . . . view the mind as an evolving entity 18. {The a - onent—proc s teory arues hat ‘l 1| [I'LI'AOAV' “"4 I r I‘ll.“ r ‘ Iraqi" 1 ’9“; :, l . . , ‘17:. w —.-J|‘."[fifl , . ‘flwut I l 9. u -' B) sou dansucd by the pong oti s o the tectorial and basilar membranes which stimulate hair cell receptors and cause them to fire C) the eye contains three types of receptors, each maximally sensitive to wavelengths of light that produce sensations of blue, green, or red )I D) all colors are derived from three antagonistic color systems: black—white (involved in brightness and saturation), blue-yellow and red-green (both responsible for hue) Page 3 Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B 1. A critical feature of the perspective is an emphasis on the interplay of competing and contradictory mental forces. A) cognitive B) behaviorist 'Cypsychodynamic D) evolutionary 2. Mary and John are being given a battery of tests. In all likelihood, Mary will score higher than John will on tests that involve A) verbal fluency and mathematical ability J3) geometric thinking and logic verbal fluency, perceptual speed, and manual dexterity ) mathematical ability and spatial processing 3. The 19th century case of Phineas Gage, who experienced profound damage to the association areas of the frontal lobes, is important because . A) his inability to process visual information provides evidence for a connection between the frontal lobes and vision his difficulty in producing intelligible language provides evidence for a connection between K1) the frontal lobes and language r.§C) his extreme personality change provides evidence for a connection between the frontal lobes and personality D) his difficulty in performing coordinated movements provides evidence for a connection between the frontal lobes and movement 4. Mark, a 21-year-old man, incurred a blow to his head. When the doctor explained what had happened to him, Mark nodded sadly, appearing to comprehend fully his circumstances. When he opened his mouth to reply, however, what emerged was unintelligible. Mark may well be suffering from . A) Korsakofi‘s syndrome f C) Wemicke's aphasia 6B) Broca's aphasia D) Pro-senile dementia 5. A major fianction of the lobe involves the experience of one's body in space and movement as Well as the more specific sense of touch. A) temporal B) frontal .‘ C). parietal D) occipital 6. The nature-nurture controversy concerns . (A) the role of unconscious processes as a determinant of behavior ,/ B l the degree to which inborn processes and external stimuli determine human behavior ) the natural tendency of humans, like all other animals, to nurture their young D) the question of determinism and free will Page ] Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B 38. Intensity of light is to as wavelength of light is to A) sensation . . . perception (C) brightness . . . color g rods . . . cones D) frequency. . . intensity 39. Excitatory neurotransmitters the postsynaptic cell membrane. A) modulate B) depolarize C) hyperpolarize are released from 4‘ 40. The demand characteristics of a study refer to . fiA) the extent to which subjects‘ responses are influenced by their perceptions of the goals of the study B) the standardized procedure as it is defined by the control group NC the expectation of researchers that hypotheses will coincide with their theoretical framework ‘ D/ the rigor with which hypotheses are specified and variables are operationalized ‘2? § a: e3 i DEG—5:7 one?” i i s l @béd I 63mm“? i b 3? 0'63 pee WWW. “303 iv Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B 7. Validity refers to . (A) a measure's ability to produce consistent results —§B) a measure's ability to assess the variable it is supposed to measure C) a measure‘s test-retest reliability as compared to an objective criterion D) a measure‘s temporal stability as compared to its intemal consistency 8. Turning abstract concepts into a concrete variable as defined by some set of actions is known as a A) operationalizing @Ehypothesizing C) theorizing D) generalizing 9. Assume that an individual has significant brain lesions confined to the hippocampus. The most likely psychological/behavioral impairment would involve . (A)j emotional regulation B) speech production C) memory D) motor coordination 10. The trichromatic theory holds that . fA)“ all colors are derived from three antagonistic color systems: black-white, blue—yellow, and K ' red-green B) the eye contains three types of receptors each of which is maximally sensitive to wavelengths of light that produce sensations of either blue, green, or red C) afierimages are visual images that persist in opposite and predictable color schemes afier a stimulus has been removed D) black-white colors contribute to brightness and saturation while the other three color sensations of blue, green and red are responsible for hue 11. The relaying of sensory information to the cerebral cortex is the most important fimction of the A) reticular formation B) hypothalamus thalamus D) cerebellum 12. Which of the following is in the correct order of transmission of information in vision? A) Rods and cones; optic nerve; bi-polar cells; ganglion cells Bi—polar cells; rods and cones; ganglion cells; optic nerve Optic nerve; ganglion cells; bi-polar cells; rods and cones a \D)} Rods and cones; bi—polar cells; ganglion cells; optic nerve 13. The staggering and slurred speech of an inebriated person is likely to be related to the altered functioning of the . A) motor cortex B) thalamus C) )limbic system D) cerebellum ’l‘ Page 2 Psychology 7A Introduction to PsychOIOgy spring 1999 exam number 2 version B V1 4‘ "" nam ' \ i.d.: _ o———-"_\—.._______. signature: 2,. U “a. 1 E 4 rules for taking exam: 1. The exam is closed book. You must place all books and material under your Seat before you open the exam- Failure to do so will result in receiving no credit for this exam. 2. Fili out your Scantron sheet exacfly as told. This must be done with care or your work will not get recorded. 3. After you are told to begin, please do so. Mark the Scantron precisely and erase any marks fully you wish to change. 4. As a strategy, skim the exam reading each question once. Answer the easy questions first. Save time to struggle over the harder ones. Eliminate wrong answers before you guess at the right answer. 5. If you need help, raise your hand. We will indicate for you to come up if you need help in understanding the question. We will provide no guidance as to which answer to pick. 6. When you are finished, bring your exam, the scantron and a picture ID up to the front to turn your exam in. Take all your materials with you and leave through the lower doors. YOU WILL NOT BE PERMITTED TO RETURN TO YOUR SEAT. 7. The answer key will be posted as announced. CALVIN 8x B , ,_ ! BY WATTERSON DAD. new (one om V y i sun; mm mo. in FKT, PHotoeamis ARE " = - mos: 0L0 PmTOGRN’HS awn-s BLACK mo .. . I . Am: IN COLOR. lT‘S JUST WHITE? DIDN‘I THEY a ‘_ ‘ THE Will) HAS BLACK HAVE come FlLM YEP. THE mam won't men COLOR UNUL SOMEHME m ‘ Tl-lE. 19305 . AND \T wAs AND NH'lTE THEN. But THEN win ARE rm NECESSARM. ou: WNW” In A LOT OF GREAT man?! 1F WE ARUSIS HERE mum WAS BLACK. _ iNSANE. AND N‘riflE, WLDNT ' Nth-5.13 AME Pmm- . . ED 1? WM NM ? Bur...BUt Hon COULD ‘ or amuse. But THEY MINE PMNTED THE‘l TURNED so “in won‘t 32mg NHENEYER lT OLD BLACK THEY HERE A COMPLICAIED SEEMS NM“ NM, AND mm: COLOR mace, HOBBE'S. 1 TAKE A NAP PHOTOS TURN PlCNRES . m A tag; AND NA“ R59. DNNER . we BEEN SHADES ‘ 0F am am mm? ‘ ESP. 0“) r_, "1': i f '-\.+v Psych7AMidterm#l VersionB Corefid” ‘. 2g 7. Imaging research has demonstrated that the is central to the consolidation of explicit memories, although studies indicate that it is not central to implicit memory. A) cerebral cortex ® hippocampus C) tegmentum D) thalamus 8. Which of the following is the most fundamental concept underlying operant conditioning? Q) Behavior is controlled by its consequences. B) Behavior is mediated by cognitive processes. r 7 ‘1?" ' i -" C) Behavior is learned through conditioning. . .I ‘ . :-~ D) Behavior is predetermined by evolutionary adaptation. ' 9. After running into an old school mate, Percy struggled to come up with the person's name. He was having difficulty with his memory . A) recognition B) declaration recall D) priming 10. Every time you order a chicken dinner from "Bubba's Chicken" you get a card stamped. After you buy ten dinners you get one for free. Bubba has you on a of reinforcement. A) fixed-interval schedule © fixed-ratio schedule B) variable-ratio schedule D) variable-interval schedule 1 1. Danielle decides not to throw her stuffed animals in the toilet afier she witnesses her brother Scott being punished for putting his stuffed animals in the toilet. This is an example of vicarious conditioning B) tutelage C) prepared learning D) negative punishment 12. The book and movie A Clockwork Orange portrays an experimental treatment of a chronically violent individual. He is strapped to a chair, given medication that induces vomiting, and forced to watch violent film footage while listening to Beethoven. As a result, he becomes ill whenever he is faced with physical violence or hears Beethoven. Beethoven is the while his illness in response to the medication is the @cs . . . UCR B) ucs . . . UCR C) neutral stimulus . . . CR D) cs . . . CR I " ‘36“, ,5 l3. @adoxical conditioning refers to circumstances in which . 75“ angel: (on the CR is actually the body's attempt to counteract the effects of a stimulus that is about to occur 1 l\ ,3? B) the UCR that would naturally occur is altered by the CS and UCS to create a CR UCS J a C) the CS is blocked by the body to prevent a reflexive response that might be harmful to the (NF—1 MK body i a _ 6 la- D) the CS is used to create a reflexive response that ordinarily would not occur if a UCS were 1 ll ’ used "1 C -7) .11: ,‘Z \ul‘Cr‘lff ‘x 5.4; 55...: INC). 0.3 C‘ 7| MAY}; Page 2 Psych 7A Midterm #l Version B 21. and schedules of reinforcement produce the most sustained levels of performance. fixed-ratio . . . variable interval C) variable-ratio . . . fixed interval 6i variable—ratio . . . variable interval D) fixed—ratio . . . fixed interval 22. The standard model of memory is predicated on the metaphor of the mind as a computer in which memory consists of three stores: , , and A) primary memory . . . secondary memory . . . ancillary memory B) visual memory . . . verbal memory . . . spatial memory iconic memory . . . echoic memory . . . motoric memory ' D sensory memory . . . short-term memory . . . long-term memory 23. Having the same context during encoding and retrieval facilitates recall because . A) the context encodes the information C) the context determines the method of loci @’ the context provides retrieval cues D) the context enables spreading activation 24. Learned helplessness is a good example of the power of . A) classical conditioning C) prepared learning a expectancies D) negative reinforcement 25. A music teacher is working on a new piece with a student. At first, the teacher praises the student for playing correct notes. After the student has begun to play most of the notes correctly, the teacher only praises the student when she plays the notes with the proper interpretation. This is an example of A) negative reinforcement B) discriminating ©shaping D) chaining 26. is active memory: information remains there only so long as the person is consciously processing, examining, or manipulati it. A) Long-term memory Working memory B) Secondary memory D) Iconic storage memory 27. Even afier not skiing for two years, Louisa was able to ski down an intermediate slope without difficulty on her first run. Her knowledge of how to ski had been stored in . 6), procedural memory B) sensory memory C) visual memory D) declarative memory 28. Trevor was having difficulty remembering his lines for the school's production of "Hamlet" because he really didn't understand what he was saying. Trevor and his director went over Trevor's speech so that Trevor could comprehend it. Once Trevor could picture what he was saying, he was able to memorize his lines. Trevor used to commit his lines to long-term memory. A) retrieval elaborate rehearsal C) maintenance rehearsal D) chunking Page 4 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. @ method of loci Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B Your textbook mentions a classic study by Garcia and Koelling in which three conditioned stimuli—light, sound, and taste—are used on rats to test the strength of conditioned responses and prepared learning. In it, rats who were exposed to radiation (which causes nausea) developed an aversion to the flavored water, but not to the light and sound cues, while rats who received electric shocks developed an aversion to the audiovisual stimuli but not the taste cues. This implies that rats (and other animals) may not be able to discriminate which stimuli caused which reaction(s) rats (and other animals) are not capable of discriminating taste cues from light and sound stimuli rats (and other animals) may know that electric shocks are more dangerous than radiation or vice versa ® rats (and other animals) may have an evolutionary preparedness to connect certain stimuli with . ' particular reactions _ fl, mi ‘_ ‘39“: in“: U“: "‘ Operant conditioning typically involves involves . A) reflexive behavior . . . voluntary decisions controlled by the peripheral nervous system conditioned behavior . . . reflexive responses controlled by the central nervous system @’ voluntary behavior . . . involuntary behavior controlled by the autonomic nervous system D) spontaneous behavior. . . conditioned behavior controlled by the cerebral cortex A) B) C) while classical conditioning more often Which of the following best exemplifies chunking? A) Tanya remembers the name of her best friend's mother—an unusual family name—by creating a song in which she sings the syllables of the name to a familiar tune from her childhood. Ria is able to immediately remember four new phone numbers by recognizing that each begins D) Sierra remembers her lines for a school play by memorizing one speech at a time, then B) Lea recalls important facts for an upcoming history exam by "hanging" each piece of ©/ information on a "peg"—in this case, a number—while visualizing the fact creatively. with a familiar prefix, and that the final digits of each number represent a familiar date in history. attaching the speech to a visual image that somehow captures the essence of what she is saying. What is the normal range of information people can old in short-term memory? A) three to five items B) eight to twelve items five to nine items D) seven to ten items flizifi In order to remember all the errands he needed to do afier work, Scott used a(n) in which he pictured the dry cleaning heaped atop his TV, a lofi of bread hanging where the remote control normally is, and bills sticking out of the VCR. Pi procedural memory C) semantic scenario PfSQ3R Page 6 Psych 7A Midterm #l Version B 14. The encoding specificity principle states that 15. 16. 17. 18. I9. 20. A) information is more easily retrieved at a certain level if it is encoded at that same level B) encoding specific information in STM is less effective than encoding it in LTM information that has been attached to a memory device is more easily retrieved than generic information D) chunking is the most effective method of encoding information in LTM The idea that prior knowledge and expectations play a major role in the formation of perceptions is a(n) position. (/9 top-down B) bottom-up C) interactive D) hierarchical Why are mnemonics devices effective? A) Mnemonics devices ostensibly file information in predictable order for easy retrieval. B) Mnemonics devices encode information in the same environment in which it will be retrieved. C) Mnemonics devices enhance memory capacity by enlarging representational fields. @ Mnemonics devices connect new information to information already stored in LTM. Tolman coined the phrase "latent learning" to describe A) learning that has occurred but is reduced by blocking learning that has occurred but is not currently manifest in behavior ) learning that has occurred but is no longer applicable to the current environment D) learning that has occurred but has lessened from continuous reinforcement You are attracted to a person standing behind you at the supermarket check-out. You are about to strike up a conversation but change your mind when you notice the person is wearing a wedding band. The wedding band, for you, is a ' A) conditioning stimulus B) discriminative stimulus C) punishment D) negative reinforcer In classical conditioning, an environmental stimulus leads to learned response through the pairing of a(n) with a previously neutral . The result is a(n) . A) unconditioned reflex . . . unconditioned stimulus . . . unconditioned reSponse B) conditioned stimulus . . . unconditioned reflex . . . unconditioned response C neutral stimulus . . . conditioned stimulus . . . conditioned response 6' unconditioned stimulus . . . conditioned stimulus . . . conditioned response A person acquires an aversion to the taste of roast chicken through classical conditioning. Upon tasting roast turkey, she reports an aversive reaction toward the turkey, although the reaction is not as strong as to the chicken. Her reaction to the turE/ey is an example of A) response generalization ) prepared learning )3) latent learning D) stimulus generalization rt. u..,,\;v;t' (“:05 C“ ‘ Page 3 l. Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B People's most vivid memories tend to be M/ everyday memories B) explicit memories, /G) implicit memories ® emotional memories A person had a middle—ear infection and was dizzy and nauseous for a week. During this time she ate very little—primarin dry crackers. Several weeks later she found the thought of eating crackers nauseating. Her response to crackers is best explained in terms of A); classical conditioning C) operant conditioning < schedules of reinforcement D) generalized expectancies p g . 1' 3 Jet The classic study by BreWer and Treyens mentioned by the author placed college student subjects in a "graduate school office" for a brief period of time, then asked them to recount what they saw in the office. The fact that they "recalled seeing" things that were not actually there supports the notion of A) the limited capacity of STM @ the reconstructive role of schemas B) unreliability of self-reporting in subjects D) the bias of demand characteristics One prominent model asserts that working memory consists of three memory systems: a visual memory store, a(n) , and a(n) . ® verbal memory store . . . central executive that manipulates the information in the two short- term stores B) implicit memory store . . . central filing system that keeps track of all the information in both of the stores C) retroactive memory store . . . internal accounting system that keeps track of information in the two short—term stores D) procedural memory store . . . long-term memory branch that retains most of the information from the two stores As a class demonstration, a dog is first conditioned to saliifate to the sound of a bell and then the conditioned response is extinguished. Two days later, the dog once again salivates to the sound of the same bell. The dog has experienced of the CR. spontaneous recovery C) operant conditioning B) latent learning D) paradoxical conditioning In serial position phenomenon, primacy effect refers to . A) the fact that words at the end of a list are maintained in STM since they have not been "bumped out" by subsequent words the fact that a list of words in STM is evaluated against items in LTM to determine their importance the fact that words at the beginning of a list receive the most rehearsal and thus are more likely to be stored in LTM the fact that if subjects are given a distracter task while trying to remember a word list, recency effect will disappear ' B) © D) Page I will 40. Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B You are in a museum. A statue is in the middle of the room. You walk around it and examine it from many places in the room. The retinal images of the statue change but you do not perceive the statue as changing. This process is known as . A) interpositioning perceptual constancy yr convergence flmotion parallax L1,: ' .. I; (-71 .0- ; C l (- r m’ , L ”_, l V\ ; [9 C / fr—fi : “32 (Viv ’» ~+’-——'-‘_,- _. K, (9- ‘ A G- r ~ - L W (ow 69> 17 F, ego f—h. l {3" _ //7 , £4 J Page7 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. @ Psych 7A Midterm #1 Version B The spreading activation theory holds that . ® activating one node in a network triggers the activation of closely related nodes B) stimulating one node in a network induces chunking in the STM C) perceiving stimuli occurs through a system of activation in the STM D) determining which node was activated in a system reveals chains of reasoning According to place theory, . A) the more often a sound wave cycles, the more often cilia on the basilar membrane will fire Q different areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies C) the more ofien a sound wave cycles, the more often hair cells on the tectorial membrane will fire D) different areas of the eardrum respond to different frequencies Jessica is a real go—getter who firmly believes that if she wants to do something badly enough, she can achieve it through perseverance. Jessica is someone who has . A) an external locus of control @/ an internal locus of control B) discriminant expectancies D) generalized expectancies ‘3‘ l he: (’0‘ ‘5“ . . _ _ I _ ‘ x v Win .lr B) increases the likelihood that a behavior wrll recur by rewarding that behavror JV (5 fit $7.). a 8 decreases the likelihood that a behavior will recur by punishing evasive actions “mam increases the likelihood that a behavior will recur by removing an aversive stimulus . . I The frequency of a simple sound wave corresponds to the psychological property of A) decibel B) loudness ©timbre D) pitch Negative reinforcement . A) decreases the likelihood that a behavior will recur by removing a conditioned stimulus Why does it take considerably less time to find a triangle in a large set of circles than it does to find a red triangle in a large set of red and blue circles and triangles? A) feature detectors only exist for a single feature; searching for more than one feature requires a serial Search searching for more than one feature requires the use of complex feature detectors, which are slower than simple cells fl) makingjudgements about the conjunction of two attributes requires rotating already existing images in memory D) searching for more than one feature requires the use of a parallel search Page 5 ...
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Psychology7A S99 Exam 1 Intro To Psychology - Psychology 7A...

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