Chapter_18 - Chapter18 SlideSettoaccompany...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 18 Testing Conventional Applications Slide Set to accompany Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e by Roger S. Pressman Slides copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009 by Roger S. Pressman For non-profit educational use only May be reproduced ONLY for student use at the university level when used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, 7/e. Any other reproduction or use is prohibited without the express written permission of the author. All copyright information MUST appear if these slides are posted on a website for student use. These slides are designed to 1 Testability Operability—it operates cleanly Observability—the results of each test case are readily observed Controllability—the degree to which testing can be automated and optimized Decomposability—testing can be targeted Simplicity—reduce complex architecture and logic to simplify tests Stability—few changes are requested during testing Understandability—of the design These slides are designed to 2 What is a “Good” Test? A good test has a high probability of finding an error A good test is not redundant. A good test should be “best of breed” A good test should be neither too simple nor too complex These slides are designed to 3 Internal and External Views Any engineered product (and most other things) can be tested in one of two ways: Knowing the specified function that a product has been designed to perform, tests can be conducted that demonstrate each function is fully operational while at the same time searching for errors in each function; Knowing the internal workings of a product, tests can be conducted to ensure that "all gears mesh," that is, internal operations are performed according to specifications and all internal components have been adequately exercised. These slides are designed to 4 Test Case Design "Bugs lurk in corners and congregate at boundaries ..." Boris Beizer OBJECTIVE to uncover errors CRITERIA in a complete manner CONSTRAINT with a minimum of effort and time These slides are designed to 5 Exhaustive Testing loop < 20 X 14 There are 10 possible paths! If we execute one test per millisecond, it would take 3,170 years to test this program!! These slides are designed to 6 Selective Testing Selected path loop < 20 X These slides are designed to 7 Software Testing black­box methods white­box methods Methods Strategies These slides are designed to 8 White­Box Testing ... our goal is to ensure that all statements and conditions have been executed at least once ... These slides are designed to 9 Why Cover? logic errors and incorrect assumptions are inversely proportional to a path's execution probability we often believe that a path is not likely to be executed; in fact, reality is often counter intuitive typographical errors are random; it's likely that untested paths will contain some These slides are designed to 10 Basis Path Testing First, we compute the cyclomatic complexity: number of simple decisions + 1 or number of enclosed areas + 1 In this case, V(G) = 4 These slides are designed to 11 Cyclomatic Complexity A number of industry studies have indicated that the higher V(G), the higher the probability or errors. modules V(G) modules in this range are more error prone These slides are designed to 12 Basis Path Testing 1 Next, we derive the independent paths: Since V(G) = 4, there are four paths 2 Path 1: 1,2,3,6,7,8 3 4 5 Path 2: 1,2,3,5,7,8 6 Path 3: 1,2,4,7,8 Path 4: 1,2,4,7,2,4,...7,8 Finally, we derive test cases to exercise these paths. 7 8 These slides are designed to 13 Basis Path Testing Notes you don't need a flow chart, but the picture will help when you trace program paths count each simple logical test, compound tests count as 2 or more basis path testing should be applied to critical modules These slides are designed to 14 Deriving Test Cases Summarizing: Using the design or code as a foundation, draw a corresponding flow graph. Determine the cyclomatic complexity of the resultant flow graph. Determine a basis set of linearly independent paths. Prepare test cases that will force execution of each path in the basis set. These slides are designed to 15 Graph Matrices A graph matrix is a square matrix whose size (i.e., number of rows and columns) is equal to the number of nodes on a flow graph Each row and column corresponds to an identified node, and matrix entries correspond to connections (an edge) between nodes. By adding a link weight to each matrix entry, the graph matrix can become a powerful tool for evaluating program control structure during testing These slides are designed to 16 Control Structure Testing Condition testing — a test case design method that exercises the logical conditions contained in a program module Data flow testing — selects test paths of a program according to the locations of definitions and uses of variables in the program These slides are designed to 17 Data Flow Testing The data flow testing method [Fra93] selects test paths of a program according to the locations of definitions and uses of variables in the program. Assume that each statement in a program is assigned a unique statement number and that each function does not modify its parameters or global variables. For a statement with S as its statement number • DEF(S) = {X | statement S contains a definition of X} • USE(S) = {X | statement S contains a use of X} A definition­use (DU) chain of variable X is of the form [X, S, S'], where S and S' are statement numbers, X is in DEF(S) and USE(S'), and the definition of X in statement S is live at statement S' These slides are designed to 18 Loop Testing Simple loop Nested Loops Concatenated Loops These slides are designed to Unstructured Loops 19 Loop Testing: Simple Loops Minimum conditions—Simple Loops 1. skip the loop entirely 2. only one pass through the loop 3. two passes through the loop 4. m passes through the loop m < n 5. (n­1), n, and (n+1) passes through the loop where n is the maximum number of allowable passes These slides are designed to 20 Loop Testing: Nested Loops Nested Loops Start at the innermost loop. Set all outer loops to their minimum iteration parameter values. Test the min+1, typical, max­1 and max for the innermost loop, while holding the outer loops at their minimum values. Move out one loop and set it up as in step 2, holding all other loops at typical values. Continue this step until the outermost loop has been tested. Concatenated Loops If the loops are independent of one another then treat each as a simple loop else* treat as nested loops endif* for example, the final loop counter value of loop 1 is used to initialize loop 2. These slides are designed to 21 Black­Box Testing requirements output input events These slides are designed to 22 Black­Box Testing How is functional validity tested? How is system behavior and performance tested? What classes of input will make good test cases? Is the system particularly sensitive to certain input values? How are the boundaries of a data class isolated? What data rates and data volume can the system tolerate? What effect will specific combinations of data have on system operation? These slides are designed to 23 Graph­Based Methods To understand the objects that are modeled in software and the relationships that connect these objects In this context, we consider the term “objects” in the broadest possible context. It encompasses data objects, traditional components (modules), and object­oriented elements of computer software. new file menu select generates (generation time These slides are designed to 24 Equivalence Partitioning user queries mouse picks FK input output formats prompts These slides are designed to data 25 Sample Equivalence Classes Valid data user supplied commands responses to system prompts file names computational data physical parameters bounding values initiation values output data formatting responses to error messages graphical data (e.g., mouse picks) Invalid data data outside bounds of the program physically impossible data proper value supplied in wrong place These slides are designed to 26 Boundary Value Analysis user queries mouse picks FK input output formats prompts input domain These slides are designed to data output domain 27 Comparison Testing Used only in situations in which the reliability of software is absolutely critical (e.g., human­ rated systems) Separate software engineering teams develop independent versions of an application using the same specification Each version can be tested with the same test data to ensure that all provide identical output Then all versions are executed in parallel with real­ time comparison of results to ensure consistency These slides are designed to 28 Orthogonal Array Testing Used when the number of input parameters is small and the values that each of the parameters may take are clearly bounded Z Y Z X One input item at a time These slides are designed to Y X L9 orthogonal array 29 Model­Based Testing Analyze an existing behavioral model for the software or create one. Traverse the behavioral model and specify the inputs that will force the software to make the transition from state to state. Recall that a behavioral model indicates how software will respond to external events or stimuli. The inputs will trigger events that will cause the transition to occur. Review the behavioral model and note the expected outputs as the software makes the transition from state to state. Execute the test cases. Compare actual and expected results and take corrective action as required. These slides are designed to 30 Software Testing Patterns Testing patterns are described in much the same way as design patterns (Chapter 12). Example: • Pattern name: ScenarioTesting • Abstract: Once unit and integration tests have been conducted, there is a need to determine whether the software will perform in a manner that satisfies users. The ScenarioTesting pattern describes a technique for exercising the software from the user’s point of view. A failure at this level indicates that the software has failed to meet a user visible requirement. [Kan01] These slides are designed to 31 ...
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  • Winter '12
  • praveen
  • Roger S. Pressman

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