Rise of Modern Liberalism - Rise of Modern Liberalism...

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Rise of Modern Liberalism – Hoover, Roosevelt 10/29/2015 ° Second Great Wave of (LIBERAL) Reform - New Deal (roughly the 1930s) – rests on certain principles of Progressivism. ° - Government can become an agent of benevolent change. ° - Welfare State – govt. provides public help during crises; designed to last ONLY as long as Great Depression; Temporary - Government activity can compensate for swings in the economy: active and interventionist government – Compensatory state ° ° Herbert Hoover – Limits of ‘rugged’ individualism (appeals to the business elite) ° - idea that individuals must be tough and weather economic hardships mainly on their own ° - did nothing to resolve the Great Depression ° - got attacked as a ‘do nothing’ president BUT Stoff has a different view. ° - born in modest circumstances; orphaned at 9; graduated from Stanford in engineering ° - millionaire before 40 ° - Quaker – ideal is to serve; HOOVER BELIEVED IN SELF-HELP and Community and cooperation ; Businesses must also engage in community building activities ° - organized Food relief in Finland and aided countries in Europe ° - Humanitarian ° - Woodrow Wilson sent Hoover to try to establish the (before 1919) Treaty of Versailles; He returned with his reputation ENHANCED despite the failure of the Treaty ° ° - became Secretary of Congress (and everything else lol) – wanted to bring the U.S. even more onto the world economic stage ° - American Individualism (1922) – IDEOLOGY – American entrepreneurial spirit; self regulation of business; govt. should act as facilitator; promoter of American business ° - too much govt. would destroy American character and be intrusive – destroy progress and freedom as well; ° ° - reaction: Tax re-raised
° - Reconstruction finance corporation to save the Banks – 5000 banks failed 1930-1932; lent money to banks to keep them afloat – actually a problem. Did not promote recovery; increased bank debt and did not make them more willing to lend to others. ° ° - Aid to the unemployed – $300 million – money was given to people who had the highest propensity to consume (they consume most percentage of their income) ° ° - Self Liquidating Public Works – $2.8 billion? pays for itself ° ° - blamed for inactivity – Active man appears paralyzed ° ° Franklin D. Roosevelt, Pragmatic Liberalism (appeals to the poor) - Patrician - Paralyzed man appears active ° - Silver Spoon fed; Cousin of Theodore Roosevelt; modeled his career after T.R. ° - energetic; optimistic ° - Suddenly fell ill due to polio; it was an epidemic to be feared in the 1920s and 30s; paralyzed from waist down ° - remained active in Party politics ° - Mastered the trick of ‘pretend walking’ – many people believed Roosevelt could walk (but he could not) ° ° - 1928 – 1932: He won Govt. ship of NEW YORK and won (Democrat) ° - Married Eleanor Roosevelt and became the most potent political team until ° - Stunning victory in 1932, even a rock could have beaten Hoover.

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