Lab Cardiovascular

Lab Cardiovascular - ROUGH DRAFT CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY...

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ROUGH DRAFT: November 14, 2006 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY Elisa Giordano ABSTRACT Purpose: The main purpose of this experiment was to look at the heart rate (HR), systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure of an individual, calculate mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) and compare them to the accepted average values. Methods: Heart rate was found by counting the number of beats in one minute three different times, then averaging the three values. Systolic and diastolic pressures were found using a pressure cuff and a stethoscope. All other values were calculated from equations. Results: HR = 122 bpm, systolic pressure = 100 mm Hg, diastolic pressure = 76 mm Hg, MAP = 84 mm Hg, SV = 36 ml/min, CO = 4.4 l/min, and TPR = 0.019 mm Hg/ml/min. Discussion: The data collected showed that the individual’s heart rate of 122 bmp was much higher than the accepted value of 70 bpm, the TPR was very close, if not equal to, the accepted value, and all other values were lower than accepted values. A factor that had a high chance of affecting the values was that the individual is prescribed to a medication that is a stimulant. INTRODUCTION Paragraph 1: Broad Introduction o Definitions The human heart consists of four chambers, the upper atria and lower ventricles. The two ventricles are the lower chambers of the heart and pump blood into the arteries; arteries are the vessels that carry blood away from the heart and to the rest of the body. A sphygmomanometer is a cuff which inflates and measures pressure. When inflated and slowly deflated and when used correctly with a stethoscope can help determine blood pressure by restricting blood flow. A stethoscope is an instrument that aids in hearing of heart and breathing sounds. Heart rate (HR) is the number of time the human heart beats in one minute. The average heart rate is about 70 bpm Systolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting and emptying the blood. The average systolic blood pressure is about 120 mm Hg.
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Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are relaxing and filling up with blood. The average diastolic blood pressure is about 80 mm Hg. Pulse pressure (PP) is the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average pressure during one cardiac cycle. Stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood that each ventricle pumps in one beat. The average stroke volume is about 70 ml per beat. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood that each ventricle pumps in one minute. The average cardiac output is about 4.9 liters when resting. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) is the resistance from all peripheral blood vessels.
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