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American Politics Midterm terms - American Politics Midterm...

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American Politics Midterm WE THE PEOPLE Chapters 1,2,4-11 Terms Ch.1 Authoritarian government- a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions Autocracy- a form of government in which a single person rules Direct-action policies- a form of politics such as civil disobidience that takes place outside of formal channels Libertarian- one who favors minimal government and max individual freedom Oligarchy- a form of gov. in which small groups control most governmental decisions Political efficacy- the ability to influence government and politics Ch.2 Bicameral- having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses Elastic clause- article 1, section 8 of constitution; enumerates the powers of Congress and provides congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out Federalism- a system of government in which power is divided by a constitution between central government and regional governments Great Compromise- achieved at Constitutional Convention that gave each state an equal state an equal number of senators regardless of population but linked the House with the population New Jersey Plan- framework for the Constitution which called equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population Tyranny- oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority Virginia Plan- framework for the Constitution which called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state Ch.4 Bill of attainder- a law that declares a personal guilty of crime without a trial Civil liberties- areas of personal freedom with which governments are constrained from interfering Double Jeopardy- the fifth amendment right providing that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime Due process of law- the right of every citizen against arbitrary action by national or state governments Eminent domain- the right of government to take private property for public use Ex post facto law- a law that declares an action to be illegal after it has been comitted Exclusionary rule- the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the fourth amendment Habeas corpus- a court order demanding that an indivual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for attainment Lemon test- government action toward religion is permissible if it is secular in purpose
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that does not promote or inhibit the practice of religion Libel- a written statement made in disregard of the truth that is damaging to the victim because it is malicious Prior restraint- an effort by governmental agency to block publication of material it deems harmful; censorship Selective incorporation- guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national gov Substantive liberties- restraints on what the government shall and shall not have the power to do Ch.5
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