Exam 1 - Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Functions of...

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Exam 1 Study Guide Functions of microorganisms 1. Initiators of most food chains, i.e. bottom rung – bacteria or algae 2. Primary recyclers of C, N, O into atmosphere 3. Producers of food Pathogens – microorganisms that causes disease or death Carolus Linnaeus o Binomial System of Nomenclature o Genus and species Von Leeuwenhouk o First hand-lens microscopes – showed single celled organisms Hooke o Named basic unit of life cells Spontaneous Generation – Living microorganisms produced by “vital forces” and arose automatically (maggots on flesh) Needham o microorganisms arise spontaneously in sterile meat broth Biogenesis – living microorganisms arose from cells, not “vital forces” Redi o maggots do not arrive spontaneously from decaying meat Spallanzani o proved that airborne microorganisms had contaminated Needham’s sterile broth and that sealing was required to prevent contamination Virchow o proposed theory of Biogenesis Pasteur o Proved theory of biogenesis correct o Developed pasteurization of wine Germ Theory of Disease – microorganisms called pathogens cause specific disease when the parasitize their hosts Bassi o Proved silkworm disease had a specific pathogenic agent of disease Lister o Developed theory of disinfection o Used carbolic acid to disinfect to prevent infection Semmelweis o Proved disinfection prevented obstetrical deaths by puerperal fevers Koch o Identified the cause of anthrax
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o Developed set of procedures called Koch’s postulates Jenner o Developed theory of chemotherapy o Found salversan to be an antimicrobial compound that could “cure” bacterial infections Fleming o Discovered penicillin Viruses and Prions – NON-CELLULAR parasites that do not have metabolic activities outside their host cells. o Prions (protein) take over cells, host’s ribosomes begin to make copies of prion, attack CNS, when cell lyses produces swiss cheese brain o RIBOSOMES ARE THE ONLY ORGANELLE COMMON TO BOTH PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS Prokaryotic Cells – Have in common o Microscopic organisms with cell walls secreted outside their cell membranes o Singular circular chromosomes o Frequently have flagella or cilia o Don’t have membrane bound organelles o Reproduce via fission (splitting) o No nuclear membrane – BUT THEY DO HAVE A NUCLEUS Archaea Often form spores Rigid cell walls (made of carbs) that NEVER contain PDG Reproduce by binary fission Lack Organelles Live in extreme environments Can form endospores May be either chemosynthetic or photosynthetic autotrophs Blue-Green Algae Photosynthetic organisms Found primarily in aquatic or marine environments Cells walls of chitin or other carbohydrates Important source of atmospheric Oxygen Primary Nitrogen fixers in marine and aquatic environment
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Bacteria Belong to Kingdom Monera Small unicellular or colonial organisms
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course BIOL 357 taught by Professor Kalia during the Spring '08 term at University of Louisville.

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Exam 1 - Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Functions of...

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