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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Nonspecific Defenses Barriers to...

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Chapter 16 Nonspecific Defenses Barriers to Infection A. Mechanical barriers 1. Intact skin- stratum corneum is barrier of dead, waterproof cells that prevent entry of bacteria & viruses into body tissues. 2. Mucous membranes - line body cavities & openings; mucus contains lysozyme and washes away microbes that enter openings. 3. Tears- contain lysozyme & wash away microbes from surface of cornea 4. Saliva- contains lysozyme & washes away microbes from oral cavity 5. Ciliary escalator – cilia in trachea, bronchia and bronchioles sweep mucus up toward pharynx to remove microbes and particles from respiratory tract B. Chemical Barriers 1. Sebum- sebaceous glands coat hairs & skin surface with fatty acids which inhibit microbial growth 2. Sweat- sudoriferous glands produce sweat to wash away microbes; Contains lysozyme. 3. Normal Microbiota- produce variety of exoenzymes, that inhibit growth of pathogenic organisms. C. Phagocytosis 1. Leukocytes that are specialized for phagocytosis include Monocytes and Neutrophils.
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