Chap 5 Cell Metabolism

Chap 5 Cell Metabolism - Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism...

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Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism Metabolism = the sum total of all life processes in an organism, including all anabolic plus all catabolic reactions Anabolism = the chemical reactions required to assemble larger molecules (polymers) from smaller structural units (monomers). This is biosynthesis; and requires energy input (utilizes ATP) for the assembly processes. Catabolism = the chemical reactions required to hydrolyze large polymers and release their structural components. This releases energy; this energy may be utilized to synthesize ATP. Enzymes = protein molecules that function as biocatalysts; tools that perform the same chemical reaction upon the same substrate/s molecule/s over and over. Characteristics of enzymes: Each Enzyme has a specific 3-D shape Each Enzyme has an active site - a 3-D negative of a particular substrate molecule Each Enzyme reduces the amount of energy required for a particular chemical change in the substrate/s to occur. Enzymes perform specific reactions at a specific turnover rate- which may be influenced By the ambient temperature, pH, substrate/s concentration, and feedback mechanisms Enzyme Components: Apoenzyme : specific 3-D protein structure encoded in a gene Coenzyme : a specific small organic molecule that is required to activate an enzyme Many coenzymes are vitamins; especially B vitamins Cofactor: a specific metallic atom that is required to activate an enzyme A Holoenzyme = Apoenzyme + coenzyme or cofactor
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Enzyme Actions /Mechanisms Recognition of the substrate/s molecule/s by the active site of the enzyme occurs Bonding of the enzyme + substrate/s occurs- the enzyme/substrate complex is formed Alteration of the shape of the substrate/s occurs during this bonding
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Chap 5 Cell Metabolism - Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism...

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