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TERMS FOR TEST #4 Agency Representation the type of representation by which a representative is held accountable to a constituency if he or she fails to represent that constituency properly. This is the incentive for good representation when the personal backgrounds, views, and interests for the representative differ from those of his or her constituency Sociological Representation a type of representation in which representatives have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents. It is based on the principle that if two individuals are similar in background, character, interests, and perspectives, then one could correctly represent the other’s view. Incumbency holding a political office for which one is running Constituent a member of a constituency; a citizen who is represented in a government by officials for whom he or she votes; "needs continued support by constituents to be re-elected" Standing Committees a permanent committee with the power to propose and write legislation that covers a particular subject, such as finance or agriculture Subcommittees a committee set up by and consisting of members of an existing committee to deal with a specific issue Conference Committees a joint committee created to work out a compromise on House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation Seniority System System based upon length of service for determining employment advantages. A seniority system is instrumental in determining who receives promotions and layoffs. Unions are strongly in favor of using seniority as the only criterion for making distinctions among employees Legislative Oversight Legislative monitoring, investigation, and review of the activities of an agency, department, or office intended to help a legislature determine if the laws it made are being faithfully executed. Oversight takes many forms, for example hearings on agency budget requests in which agency activities have to be justified to the satisfaction of legislators. Committees and subcommittees typically do much of the work of oversight.
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