Micro 03-24-08 - Whitney Barter Ch 16 R 1-4 6-8 11 12 14 15...

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Whitney Barter Ch. 16 – R 1-4, 6-8, 11, 12, 14, 15; MC 3, 5; CT 1, 4 3/24/08 1. Define the following terms: a. Innate Immunity Immunity that is present at birth Is always there and available to provide rapid responses to protect against disease Does not involve specific recognition of a microbe and acts against all microbes in the same way Does not have a memory component Components include first line of defense (skin and mucous membranes) and the second line of defense (NKC, phagocytes, inflammation, fever and antimicrobials) Innate immune response represent immunity’s early warning system and are designed to prevent microbes from gaining access into the body and to help eliminate those that do gain access b. Susceptibility Vulnerability or lack of immunity c. Adaptive Immunity Defenses that involve specific recognition of a microbe once it has breached the innate immunity defenses Based on a specific response to a specific microbe It adapts or adjusts to handle a particular microbe Is slower to respond than innate immunity Has a memory component Components include T cells (T lymphocytes) and B cells (B lymphocytes). 2. Identify at least one physical and one chemical factor that prevent microbes from entering the body through each of the following: a. Skin Physical – top layer of epidermis is dead and contains a protective protein called keratin, when top layer is shed it helps remove microbes at surface, dryness inhibits microbial growth Chemical – sebum, an oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands, forms a protective film over the surface of the skin, one component of sebum is unsaturated fatty acids, which inhibit the growth of certain pathogenic bacteria and fungi b. Eyes Physical – lacrimal apparatus, a group of structure that manufactures and drains away tears, continual washing action helps prevent microorganisms from settling on the surface of the eye
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