Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Immune Disorders Allergic...

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Chapter 19 Immune Disorders Allergic Reactions : inflammatory response triggered by environmental substance, ingestion of protein antigen, skin exposure to toxin or antigen, insect venoms or inhalation of antigens. Histamine is released from Mast cells, triggering the inflammatory response in the area of exposure, or systemic release of histamine, which can cause a fatal shock response. Hypersensitivity: Upon exposure to a foreign antigen (allergen), the immune system becomes sensitized and damaging inflammatory responses can occur. These include: Type I (Anaphylaxis) Reactions Localized anaphylaxis reactions- allergic sinusitis, asthma, hives . Mast cells and/or basophils are triggered by exposure to the allergen to release histamine thru degranulation. Histamine triggers the inflammatory response: increased capillary permeability, which leads to edema, erythema, increased mucus or tear secretion and smooth- muscle contractions. Leukotrienes are also released which increase bronchial spasms and summon more basophils to the affected area to release more histamine. Prostaglandins are released which increase mucus secretions Systemic Anaphylaxis- anaphylactic shock Sensitization to allergen occurs with initial exposure Mast cells release histamine upon subsequent exposure to allergen Massive release of histamine from basophils occurs Symptoms: drop in blood pressure; bronchial spasms with wheezing and restricted
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course BIOL 357 taught by Professor Kalia during the Spring '08 term at University of Louisville.

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Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Immune Disorders Allergic...

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