Exam 4 - Study Guide - Chapter 17 Specific Immunity...

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Chapter 17 – Specific Immunity Immunity – resistance to disease caused by innate factors, genetic traits, and acquired specific immunity Acquired Immunity Naturally Acquired Active Immunity Occurs by exposure to disease organisms Antigens enter body naturally and body produces antibodies and specialized lymphocytes Must actually have disease May result in permanent or long-term immunity to subsequent infections Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity Occurs when maternal antibodies are transferred to a fetus via placenta during the last trimester of pregnancy May also be transmitted through breast milk Lasts about 4 months, then baby’s immune system treats mom’s antigens as foreign antibodies Artificially Acquired Active Immunity Occurs when immunized with specific antigens Results in production of antibodies against a pathogen May be temporary Vaccination Repeated immunizations may confer long-term immunity to a pathogen Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity Occurs with injection of specific antibodies Transfers antibodies from an immunized animal to a human DOES NOT cause antibody formation DOES NOT convey permanent resistance Antigens Any foreign protein, lipoprotein, large polysaccharide, or glycoprotein introduce into the body can be one Germs Antibodies Specific proteins produced as the result of exposure to an antigen Each type of antibody is a 3-D negative of a specific antigen at it’s active site Formed by your body Produced by lymphatic tissues and cell circulating Attaches to an antigen at the forks Exam 3 Study Guide Page 1
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Types of Antibodies IgG Humoral antibodies that compromise 70-80% of all antibodies in serum Are monomers that have two antigen bonding sites per molecule Protect against bacteria and viruses Neutralize bacterial toxins and exoenzymes Trigger complement activation Binds to antigens to enhance phagocytosis IgM 5-10% of all circulating serum antibodies These are pentamers that have 10 antigen bonding sites per molecule Are the first to appear in serum, but their concentration declines rapidly Lowering levels when IgG are introduced into system IgA 10-15% of serum antibodies Circulates in serum as a monomer Is found on mucosal surfaces as a dimer Prevents attachment of viruses and bacteria to mucosal surfaces Prevent mucus related infections IgD 0.2% of serum antibodies Activate B lymphocytes IgE 0.0002% of serum antibodies Bond to mast cells and basophils Trigger allergic reactions and inflammatory response that attract IgG and phagocytes Bond to mast cells to trigger histamine release Humoral Immunity On first exposure takes 7-14 days for IgG and IgM antibodies to peak On second exposure IgM response is lower and IgG response is exponentially higher Long Term/Permanent immunity Processed by spleen and lymp B Lymphocytes
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course BIOL 357 taught by Professor Kalia during the Spring '08 term at University of Louisville.

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Exam 4 - Study Guide - Chapter 17 Specific Immunity...

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