Micro 04-07-08 - Whitney Barter Ch 19 R 1-6 8-11 13 14 MC...

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Whitney Barter Ch. 19 – R 1-6, 8-11, 13, 14; MC 1-4; CT 1, 3 4/7/08 1. Define hypersensitivity . Hypersensitivity is an antigenic response beyond that which is considered normal, allergy is essentially synonymous. Individual has to have been sensitized by previous exposure to allergen. There are 4 types of hypersensitivity reactions – anaphylactic, cytotoxic, immune complex and cell mediated (or delayed type) reaction. 2. List three mediators released in anaphylactic hypersensitivities, and explain their effects. Histamine – Histamine is stored in the granules of mast or basophil cells. The release of histamine increases permeability and distension of blood capillaries, resulting in edema (swelling) and erythema (redness). Other effect include increased mucus secretion (runny nose, etc.) and smooth muscle contraction, which in respiratory bronchi results in breathing difficulty. Leukotrienes – Are not stored in the granules, but are synthesized by the antigen- triggered cells. Tend to cause prolonged contractions of certain smooth muscles, their actions contributes to the spasms of the bronchial tubes that occurs during asthmatic attacks. Prostaglandins – Are not stored in granules, but are synthesized by the antigen-triggered cells. Affect smooth muscles of the respiratory system and cause increased mucus secretions. Collectively, all these mediators serve as chemotactic agents, that within a few hours attract neutrophils and eosinophils to the site of the degranulated cell. They then activate various factors that cause inflammatory symptoms, such as distension of the capillaries, swelling, increased secretion of mucus and involuntary contractions of smooth muscles. 3. Discuss the roles of antibodies and antigens in an incompatible tissue transplant. The recipient’s antibodies will recognize that the donor’s tissues do not carry their
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course BIOL 357 taught by Professor Kalia during the Spring '08 term at University of Louisville.

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Micro 04-07-08 - Whitney Barter Ch 19 R 1-6 8-11 13 14 MC...

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