Unformatted text preview: Arguments & non-Arguments Arguments Factual claim Inferential claim Explicit inferential claim: indicator words Implicit inferential claim: no indicator words Non-arguments Conditional statements (If...then...) Explanations: because is an indicator word Passages Lacking an Inferential Claim Conditional statements Conditional statements by themselves can NEVER be arguments. Conditional statements can be parts of arguments Explanations The purpose of an explanation is to show why something is true. The purpose of an argument is to prove that something is true. How to distinguish Arguments from Explanations Explanans Do the explaining Premises The facts that provide support for the Explanandum The accepted fact that needs explaining Conclusion The point needing proof How to distinguish Arguments from Explanations Determine what the main point of the passage is. If the main point is a generally accepted fact the passage is probably an explanation. If the main point needs to be proven the passage is probably an argument. Unfortunately there is no foolproof way to distinguish all arguments from explanations. Passages Lacking an Inferential Claim Simple non-inferential passages Expository passages Illustrations Loosely associated statements Pieces of advice Statements of opinion reports ...
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- Spring '07
- Logic, Philosophical terminology, inferential claim