Week 4 - Week 4 Big Band Swing Popular leading up to during...

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Week 4: Big Band ( 大乐团 ) Swing ( 摇摆乐 ): Popular leading up to( 在…之前 ) & during World War Two During World War Two: 1929-1943 Records sold was Big Band Usually had a vocalist ( 歌手 ) Variety of brass instruments As more people came to shows the bigger the band could be Complex structure with improvisation (即兴演奏) 1942 – musicians strike ( 音乐家罢工 ) Singers had a different union AFTRA: American Federation of Television and Ration Artists Big bands – travel between cities In cities – were lonely Singers = “Crooners”( 低声唱歌的人 - 伤感 ) Power and magic – personality Sex symbols Use of microphone – more personal Audience feel as though ( 仿佛 ) they knew the singers Microphones came into use in the 1930 & 1940s & contributed to (促进) the star industry Duke Ellington, “Conga Brava,”1940 I – 4 A – 20 = 16 (trombone( 伸缩长号 ) solo) + 4 (clear bridge) A – 20 = 16 (trombone solo, riffs, brass( 铜管乐器 )) + 4 (clear bridge) B – 8 (clear solo, brass in background) Bridge – 6 (everyone tutti( 合奏,合唱 )) C – 40 (tenor( 中音 ) sax solo) Bridge – 8 (muted trumpets ( 弱音小号 )) A – 20 = 16 (saxes + trpt) + 4 D – 22 (tutti)Ballrooms Bridge – 4 A – 20 (trombone solo, fade out( 减弱 )) key parts: 1. More complicated ( 复杂的 ) lengths to the sections Longer Unusual length (10 measures, 22 measures) 2. Mostly written but some improvised ( 即兴的 ) – sax solo 3. Hybrid of white and black traditions
Demise ( 死亡 ) of the Big Band: 1. People moved out of cities at the end of WW2 Moved back home Fewer audience members 2. Women more into home roles with nuclear family (social pressure, beginning of baby boom) 3. Ballrooms( 舞厅 ) disappeared – closed down due to lack of revenue 4. The singer becomes a celebrity, singers that began fronting the big bands became solo leaving the band behind. They were allowed to record Jump Band (jump blues) Played R&B Smaller version of swing bands – usually 1 person on each part (22 people down to 8) Until 1948 , billboard called black music was called “race music” , but b ecause of R&B that they started breaking up race music into individual genres. ( 流派 ) Prior( 优先地,先前的 ) to 1948 , radio was run by broadcasters( 广播员 ) NBC started on Radio , CBC, ABC, CBS... wide ranging audience (broadcast means looking for broad appeal) late 1940s & early 1950s , many predicted that television would overtake radio. Broadcasters were putting money into TV opened up opportunities for smaller stations to gain a following and play a wider range of music DJ Alan Freed – Cleveland( 克利夫兰 - 美国城市 ) One of the first DJs to play black music refuses racial discrimination ( 种族歧视 ) plays all popular music R&B a style between 1945 & 1960 (era called glory day s of R&B) end of WW2 & pre Beatles more positive based in blues but up-tempo( 快 节 奏 ) and made for dancing and
celebration up beat ( 弱拍 ) feel Louis Jordan: “The father of R&B”

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