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Week 4:Big Band (大乐团) Swing (摇摆乐):•Popular leading up to(在…之前)& during World War Two•During World War Two: 1929-1943Records sold was Big Band•Usually had a vocalist(歌手)•Variety of brass instruments•As more people came to shows the bigger the band could be•Complex structurewith improvisation（即兴演奏）1942 – musicians strike (音乐家罢工)•Singers had a different unionAFTRA: American Federation of Television and Ration Artists•Big bands – travel between cities•In cities – were lonely•Singers = “Crooners”(低声唱歌的人-伤感)Power and magic – personalitySex symbolsUse of microphone– more personal•Audience feel as though (仿佛)they knew the singers•Microphones came into use in the 1930 & 1940s& contributed to（促进） the star industryDuke Ellington, “Conga Brava,”1940I – 4A – 20 = 16(trombone(伸缩长号) solo)+ 4(clear bridge)A – 20 = 16(trombone solo, riffs, brass(铜管乐器)) + 4(clear bridge)B – 8(clear solo, brass in background)Bridge – 6(everyone tutti(合奏，合唱))C – 40(tenor(中音) sax solo)Bridge – 8(muted trumpets (弱音小号))A – 20 = 16(saxes + trpt) + 4D – 22(tutti)BallroomsBridge – 4A – 20(trombone solo, fade out(减弱))key parts:1.More complicated (复杂的)lengths to the sections•Longer•Unusual length (10 measures, 22 measures)2.Mostly written but someimprovised (即兴的) – sax solo3.Hybrid of white and black traditions
Demise (死亡) of the Big Band:1.Peoplemoved out of citiesat the end of WW2•Moved back home•Fewer audience members2.Women more into home roles with nuclear family (social pressure, beginning ofbaby boom)3.Ballrooms(舞厅) disappeared– closed down due to lack of revenue4.The singer becomes a celebrity,singers that began fronting the big bandsbecame solo leaving the band behind. They were allowed to recordJump Band (jump blues)•Played R&B•Smaller version of swing bands – usually 1 person on each part(22 peopledown to 8)•Until 1948, billboard called black music was called “race music”, butbecause of R&Bthat they started breaking up race music into individualgenres.(流派)•Prior(优先地，先前的) to 1948, radio was run bybroadcasters(广播员)NBCstarted on Radio, CBC, ABC, CBS...•wide ranging audience (broadcast means looking for broad appeal)•late 1940s & early 1950s, many predicted that television would overtakeradio. Broadcasters were putting money into TV•opened up opportunities for smaller stationsto gain a following and play awider range of musicDJ Alan Freed– Cleveland(克利夫兰-美国城市)••One of the first DJsto play black music•refuses racial discrimination(种族歧视)•plays all popular musicR&B•a style between 1945 & 1960(era called glory days of R&B)•end of WW2 & pre Beatles•more positive•based in bluesbutup-tempo(快 节 奏)and made for dancing and
celebration•up beat (弱拍) feelLouis Jordan: “The father of R&B”