Outline 13 Learning, Memory, Plasticity

Outline 13 Learning, Memory, Plasticity - Outline 13:...

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Book Chapter Readings for this outline: Sections 11.6-11.8, 9.3-9.4 Narcolepsy due to deficient orexin (neurotransmitter) levels. Humans with damage to hippocampus III. Hippocampal Place Cells Cells that are most active when a rat is in a particular position relative to stable cues in the environment. Selectively turns on when rats are in specific places in the environment. Waves go crazy when in familiar places. Some neurons fire, some don’t. Different neurons like different places. Place cell properties: o Location specific Intense activity only when a rat's head is in a certain position in the environment Fire only when rat is in a particular position. Or what position it thinks its in. o Place fields develop within minutes in a new environment and are stable for weeks to months (maybe longer) o The same cell can have stable representations of different places within different environments o There is no logic to hippocampal place cells. May be close or far from each other. No rules. o Place cells do not make up a topographic representation of space within hippocampus o Place cells can vary dependent upon what the rat is doing in the environment (e.g., directed versus random search for food pellets) Does the hippocampus form a cognitive map of space? o Critical role in memory formation o Some believe that a major function of the hippocampus is to form cognitive maps of space. o Others think that spatial processing by the hippocampus is just one component of a larger function, that of forming relationships between individual items in memory. Ability to associate different moments in time. This moment in time is a layout of what place in room. Hippocampus is time traveler of the brain. Not place where memory is being stored. Rats and humans do have a cognitive map of space. o Hippocampal place cells don’t care about which direction head is pointing. Care about location. o Head direction cells – always fire when rat is headed in a certain direction. Don’t care about location but do care about head direction. Only fire when rat is moving in that direction. o In potential support of the latter, hippocampal neurons do respond to stimuli other than spatial positions, e.g., “head direction cells”, “cue cells” and “stimulus sequence cells” Engram – the thing in the brain which is the memory. IV. Considerations for finding the "engram" Localization of Function Distributed Processing Hierarchical pathways Parallel pathways It is now quite clear that: The same type of learning can involve changes in many different brain regions. Different types of learning can involve changes in different brain regions.
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Different types of learning can involve Memory is a thing in the place of the brain. Learning, Memory and Neural Plasticity, Part II:
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Outline 13 Learning, Memory, Plasticity - Outline 13:...

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