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ROME IDS WHOLE-1 - Lecture 14 1 Declaration of War a...

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Lecture 14 1. Declaration of War a. Fetiales had the right to formally declare war b. Process was practical and religious in nature- a number of steps: i. Demand oaths and restitution from offending party ii. Consult with senate iii. Throwing of the spear (religious in nature) iv. Prayers and vows v. Consultation of Omens vi. Motion to the Comitia Centuriata c. Originally only religious elements existed d. Ancus Marius reformed process to add the practical elements 2. Fetiales a. Priestly college created by Numa Pompilius to deal with international relations, namely declaring and war and confirmation of treaties. b. Originally from noble families c. Served life terms d. Non-binding decisions- gave advice e. Leading members were called Varbanarius and Pater Patratus- the latter performed many of the actions leading to war (throwing of spear, request for offending party to right the wrongs they had done to Rome) f. Faded from Roman life towards end of Republic, but was later revived in ceremonial form by Augustus 3. Cimbri and Tuetones a. Advance south into Roman territory in late 2 nd century BCE b. Swelling numbers alert Romans of their presence and their threat c. Romans defeated several times in attempt to get of them d. Marius takes command of force and in 102 destroys Teutones, and in 101 destroys Cimbri. e. This conflict distracted Rome from the expansion of Mithridates 4. Comitia Centuriata a. 193 “centuries” (voting units) b. Each unit voted according to the majority vote of its members c. Could be summoned only by one with imperium d. Early on, elected consuls, praetors, and censors e. Early on, voted on matters of war and peace f. Heavily favored incumbents and wealthy citizens g. Voted to recall Cicero from exile in 57 BCE 5. Perseus a. Son of Philip V in Macedonia b. Involved in Third Macedonian War (171-168) c. Romans were looking for reason to go to war d. Perseus defeated at Pydna in 168 by Lucius Aemillius Paulus e. Example of war where concept of ‘Just War’ was amended to suit Rome’s desires. Rome wanted to get rid of potential enemy
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f. Also provided Rome with a way to expand, by citing ‘defense of allies’ as primary reason g. In contrast to war with Perseus, First and Second Macedonian Wars were fought b/c of wrongs Romans thought Philip V (father) had done them (i.e. to ally with Hanibal 6. Mithradates VI Eupator (120 BCE) a. Expelled Roman-supported leader Nicomedia from Bithynia. b. Exploits Social War (91-87) and Rome’ s conflict with Cimbri and Tuetones and captures territories from Rome c. Ordered the ‘Asian Vespers’ in 88, where 80,000 Italian and Roman inhabitants of Asia Minor were killed to cut ties with Rome. d. Survived Roman attacks for 30 years e. Was an omnipresent threat to Roman empire, or at least perceived that way f. There were three Mithridatic Wars(90-85, 83-82, 74-63), none successful in killing Mithridates. He either committed suicide or was killed by his soldiers.
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ROME IDS WHOLE-1 - Lecture 14 1 Declaration of War a...

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