GE80A Human Aging CH. 4[F+F], 7 Review

GE80A Human Aging CH. 4[F+F], 7 Review - Chapter 7 The...

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Chapter 7 The nervous system divided into 2 parts: Central Nervous System (CNS) : brain and spinal cord and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) : all other parts of the nervous system, including the spinal nerves that arise from the spinal cord. Neurons – brain cells, carry info throughout body in form of electrical signals. Peripheral nerves called sensory nerves carry incoming messages from the environment to the CNS. Peripheral nerves called motor nerves carry outgoing info from the CNS to muscles and glands throughout body. As people age neurons die and are not replaced. This cell loss is not uniform in the nervous system and its effects depend on where it occurs. Cerebellum – controls body movements and to some degree balance. Needed for precise muscle movements. Located at back and base of brain. Loses about 25% of cells with aging. Damage can cause changes in gait. Falls are most common and serious problem for old people. Postfall syndrome – used to describe the fear of falling in the elderly who have had a prior fall. Nervous system also regulates sleep. Sleeping involves two opposing systems: arousal system and sleep-producing system. Located in brain stem are activated or deactivated by day-night cycle. Two types of sleep: Nonrapid Eye Movement (slow wave): 4 stages form light to deep sleep and Rapid Eye Movement (REM): dreaming occurs 4 to 6 times per night. Older people have less REM sleep. Insomnia. Cognitive Psychology – study of mental processes. Creativity is the hardest mental process to measure. Wisdom helps people adapt to aging. Both are components of intelligence: the product of fluid intelligence : the ability to apply mental power to situations that require little or no prior knowledge and crystallized intelligence : based on info, skills, and strategies people have learned through experience. Fluid intelligence is measure along two broad dimensions, verbal and performance intelligence. Early research found decline in this and it got termed classic aging pattern. Schaie’s research found that significant intellectual decline occurs late in life, there is great variation in the type and level of change between individuals and cohorts. Many maintain intelligence in old age. Health and SES are main factors for maintaining it. There is little or no decline in Crystallized intelligence. Increasing age causes memory lapses. Learning – process of acquiring knowledge and skills. Memory – retention of that knowledge. Encoding – stage of memory where info learned is placed into memory and stored for later use. Eye Blink Classical Conditioning EBCC shows learning rates decline with age. Hippocampus involved in learning and memory. Some say that loss of neurons here causes decline in learning. It’s also harder for them to memorize and retrieve info. Two storehouses in brain –
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GE80A Human Aging CH. 4[F+F], 7 Review - Chapter 7 The...

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