Outline4 - 1 Outline#4 Theories of Personality Why is it...

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Outline #4 Theories of Personality Why is it important to have a perspective? It provides a framework! The Psychoanalytic Perspective: - Sigmund Freud - Compared mind to iceberg: o 1 st level: conscious- the thoughts and feelings, what we’re aware of right now, and the least important of the level according to Freud o 2 nd level: preconscious- analogous to memory o 3 rd level: unconscious- thoughts, memories, idea, etc. Just below consciousness Inaccessible to conscious experience Freud assumes unconscious forces shape personality. Free association in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. Psychoanalysis is Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. Unconscious , according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. o Some of these thought we store temporarily in our preconscious. He thought that people repressed or forcibly block from our consciousness because they would be too unsettling to acknowledge. He thought although we were not consciously aware of them, these troublesome feelings and ideas powerfully influenced us. He believed that our unconscious could be revealed in our dreams. The content of dreams is their manifest dreams. The censored expression of the dreamer’s unconscious wishes is the latent dreams . o Personality Structure Freud believed that human personality arises from a conflict between our aggressive, pleasure seeking biological impulses and the internalized social restraints against them. Three interacting systems o The Id contains a reservoir of unconscious psychotic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual an aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate satisfaction. Like a newborn infant, present of birth o The ego is the largely conscious, executive part of the personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. 1
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Governs how we should act o The superego is the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. Develops in children around 4-5 years old Strives for perfection Rules of parents and society o The superego’s demands often oppose the id’s, the ego struggle to reconcile the two. It mediates the impulsive demands of the id and restrains the demands of the superego. Personality Development
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Rowekamp during the Spring '08 term at Xavier.

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Outline4 - 1 Outline#4 Theories of Personality Why is it...

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