Outline3 - THINKING Thinking is cognition the internal...

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T HINKING : Thinking is cognition, the internal representations/mental activities associated with processing,  understanding, remembering, and communicating information. -  Brain makes things easier: streamlines info concept  is a mental category that groups things according to common properties: - Makes things easier by not needing to know a name for each item, but just the general idea.  A  symbolic representation, like graphs, pictures, maps - Lies in our semantic memory and call tell us a lot: -A dog is an animal, a pet, a mammal, a quadruped, furry, and has a tail -All of these things help us draw conclusions -Below the concept, is the  hierarchy , a way to organize concepts into categories. - Like cab drivers organizing their cities into geographical sectors which subdivide into  neighborhoods, and then into blocks. prototype  is one example that we have in our minds as a basic, classic example.  It is a mental image or  best example of a category.  Matching new items to the prototype provide a quick and easy method for  including items in a category. - Dog = Fido - Car = Nissan - Bird = bluebird Problem Solving Strategies 1. Trial and Error: a. Good option with limited choice b. Not always most efficient 2. Insight: a. Stressed by Gestaltists b. An aha! Moment c. Rapid recognition that ends up in a solution presenting itself. d. Shown in brain scans as a burst of activity in the right temporal lobe. 3. Algorithm:  a. Guarantees a result b. Following directions c. Refers to procedures of how to do things d. An exhaustive search, can take a long time, better suited for computers. 4. Heuristic a. Mental shortcut that may or may not give you an answer b. Not as systematic as algorithmic but helps reduce cognitive strain i. SQILTU = QUILTS c. Two examples of how it could go wrong: i. Representativeness Heuristic  is judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well  they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other 
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relevant information. ii. Availability Heuristic  is estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability  in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness),  we presume such events are common. Obstacles to Problem Solving 1. Confirmation Bias a. A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions. b. We tend to seek evidence verifying our ideas more eagerly then we seek evidence that  might refute them. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Rowekamp during the Spring '08 term at Xavier.

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Outline3 - THINKING Thinking is cognition the internal...

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