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HistoryNotesSet3 - AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE 19TH CENTURY:...

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A MERICAN S OCIETY IN THE 19 TH C ENTURY : Question of power, legacies of the revolution: - Rhetoric of revolution challenged patriarchy and deference - Jacksonsian democracy threw out privilege and ceremonies of aristocracy. - Market and changing notion of the frontier o Frontier goes from “where civilization ends to back country to market revolution, where frontier is ruggedness.” o It will eventually become the idea of “everywhere we haven’t been but will be there next.” - Industrial revolution/introduction of industrial classes o Creation of middle class o 2 nd party system Middle class does fit in this system What is lost? - Moral economy replaced with market economy - Right of crowd/rebellion - Frontier equality (frontier becomes just like coast, with gender and race barriers as it becomes incorporated into market) - Squatter’s rights - Tavern culture (where all men of all classes share that culture) loses out to a high brow/low brow system (separate cultures) - What will happen to women? Republican motherhood Middle class womanhood Defining the Democratic: - The era of the common man - New categories of race - Masculinity and violence O LD S OUTH : Old south/antebellum south (before the war) - Key to south is South, capitalized. - Distinct region with shared politics, culture, etc. - What makes the south is cotton and slavery . Revolutionary society and the slavery question: - Revolution = large threat to slavery, because it is a blatant hypocrisy. - After revolution northern states slowly all phase out (slavery = dying institution) – it just wasn’t that important tot northern economy. o South was actually slowly not needing them either, because there was an overproduction of tobacco - International slave trade banned, but slavery itself is not outlawed King Cotton: With market revolution, textile mills want cotton, it becomes a huge market. - 2 types: long staple (better because it had less seeds) and short staple. - But long staple is also finicky, only could grow along very southern coast - Creation of Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1793): removes seeds, making short staple cotton profitable through mechanization. Cotton Production: (pounds produced) 1790 3,135 (Creation of the Cotton Gin) 1800 73,145 (Market Expansion, War of 1812 & Embargo on British goods) 1820 334,378 1840 1.35 million 1850 2.85 million 1860 4.8 million
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- Gone is back country deep south o Large, sprawling cotton plantations in Mississippi, Alabama - Deep south and the slave market o With international cut off, they sell between state to state, particularly down to deep south o Value of slaves skyrockets The Identity of the Old South: - Slavery as an institution ties the states together - Do not industrialize and create working classes like north, no large cities, just plantations - Unlike increasingly democratic, mark driven urban north, plantation has no public/private; it is a self- contained environment. -
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HistoryNotesSet3 - AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE 19TH CENTURY:...

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