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Unformatted text preview: Set 1 Pg. 1 Europe and the Age of Exploration: 1497- John Cabot, an Italian explorer sailing for the English, landed in Newfoundland and discovered amazing fishing ground. By 1550 , 400+ ships were sailing to the region- the same region where the Vikings happened to land in 1001 . So the question is, why didnt the Vikings take advantage of what they had found, and why did the English consider it so important? The Vikings1. didnt know what they had found? 2. were not able to find it again? So what changed in Europe between 1001 and 1550 that made them now recognize Newfoundland as important? 1. Growth In Trade- (new conceptions of trade & identity) Europeans were now more focused on the idea of an empire in 1550. Merchants and trade gain influence as religion and money/trade mesh together into the crusades. Christian Europe began in 1096 the year of the 1 st Crusade (attempt to retake the Holy land & also Constantinople). Ended in 1270 . Increased desire to control! Along with a new Christian identity, it also leads to new developments in technology and trade (Silk Road-Marco Polo 1290) Old Way New Way City existed for Monastery Centers to barter Kings home Merchants rule University Trade locations 2. Population Change- 1100-1300 = explosion of development in the form of city states and merchants. This massive growth results in the Black Death (aka Bubonic Plague) in 1348. It Follow the trade routs from Asia and kills 1/3 of the European population. Europe does not recover from the Black Death for another 150 years (until the 1600s). Population diminishes to a fraction of its previous size Shakes the faith of the people (death surrounds everything) and causes a culture of pessimism. 3. Technological Advancements- Better understanding of ship building, mapping techniques, and sailing in general. Also inventions such as the astrolabe and quadrant. Mid 1400s , Portugal invests heavily in sailing technology in order to circumvent the Mediterranean and profit grabbing city-states along the trade routes from India and China. 4. Political Change- (Local feudalism led to large massive kingdoms) Very powerful kings (Louis XI and Ferdinand and Isabella, for example) began to overtake the small local leaders Spain especially, with the powerful union of the previously mentioned Ferdinand and Isabella. Within Spain there was infighting between Islam & Christianity, due to the large influence of the African Moors, who immigrated from just across the Mediterranean. This led to the reconquista, where the Moors were pushed out of the kingdom, ending in 1492. Exploration comes out of trade, money, and nationalism, which are all explained away by religion. It all comes from something; it doesnt just come from nothing....
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