geogch4 - Wed Mar 12 Latin America Latin America fig 4.1...

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Wed, Mar 12 Latin America Latin America: fig 4.1 - From the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo in Mexico) to Tierra del Fuego (S. tip of S America - Most of Central and S America - Shared colonial history: Iberian countries (from Iberian peninsula in Europe) Physical Setting: fig 4.3 - Pacific plate is being subducted below the S American plate - Creates Humboldt Trench off west coast and  - Andes Mountains - Similar pattern of mountains along w coast of Mexico and central America - Atlantic side characterized by upland plateaus called shields and humid lowlands Western mtns and eastern shields - Andes: rugged mtns on Pacific coast; altiplano =  high plateau - Uplands of Mexico and Central America: high population density - Shields: large upland areas of exposed crystalline rock, Brazilian and Patagonian shields - Tectonic setting means lots of strong earthquakes - Creates Humboldt Trench - Yungas Road: dangerous (in Andes) but important for economy o Sheer topography  o Extreme climate o Unstable geology o How have humans adapted? - Bolivia: from capital la Paz down into amazon rainforest Mon, Mar 24 Environmental issues - In and around cities - Livability - Intensely farmed zones - Deforestation, loss of biodiversity - Degradation of farmland
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- Aggressive exploitation of natural resources - Economic benefits of extraction vs. conservation Mexico City: 18mil - Smog factors: surrounded by mtns, limits wind, temperature inversion, unregulated emissions - Water supply: overdrawn aquifer, leaky infrastructure - Subsidence: sank 30 feet during last century Deforestation of Amazon tropical rainforest - Agriculture, livestock, minerals mining - Grassification - Urbanization: smog, inadequate water supply, garbage removal Climate - Rainforest to desert - Enormous variations in temperature and precipitation - Some S hemisphere seasonality - El Nino: altered weather pattern caused by warm current in Pacific River Basins and lowlands - 3 great river basins: o Orinoco: grasslands with ranching, oil and gas production
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geogch4 - Wed Mar 12 Latin America Latin America fig 4.1...

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