Ant 1 april 29 + may 1 2008

Ant 1 april 29 + may 1 2008 - Primate life history and...

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Primate life history and mating systems Take home messages  - Design features of guts and teeth are shaped by  natural selection to solve different challenges posed by  different food resources - Large primates tend to eat low quality diets and live in  large groups; small primates tend to eat high quality  diets and live in large groups  - Most adaptations for food processing are shaped by  fallback foods, not preferred foods or most commonly  eaten foods - Feeding competition can take several forms, each of  which exert different selective pressures on group size  and social relationships  Primate life history and mating systems - Life history o Basic life history theory o Humans in comparative perspective - Mating system  Life history theory: trade offs - Resources are limited o Always not having enough - Life is a zero-sum game - Natural selection shapes allocation “decisions” Life history decisions: how to allocate limited resources? - Investment o Time and resources o Totally amount of investment - Making decision into two categories  o Somatic effort (to self) Growth, maintenance and repair o Reproductive effort  Parental effort  Offspring quality – survival,  growth, learning, social  connections, etc Mating effort  Copulations  o Effort put on somatic effort also help  reproductive effort  Life history trade offs: examples - Growth vs. reproduction  - Reproducing now vs. reproducing later - Long juvenile period vs. short juvenile period
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- Little investment per offspring, many offspring (“r  strategists”) vs. intense investment in a few offspring  (“k strategists”) - Paternal investment vs. mating effort Natural selection shapes these allocation; to maximize  inclusive fitness  Allocation “decisions” may vary between the sexes and over  an individual’s lifetime  Sex differences in energy allocation - Male: high investment in himself, invest energy to  mating effort - Female: less investment [than male] in self, more  investment in parenting effort Male have higher mortality than female at any given age.  Unusual features of human life histories  - Exceptionally long lifespan - Extended juvenile dependence o Long post-reproductive life span  - Support of reproduction by post-reproductive  individuals - Male support of reproduction through provisioning  females and offspring Post-reproductive lifespan  - Female lives long after their ability to reproduce is  deducted. 
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