Ant_2_Final_Exam_Review_Sheet - Economic Anthropology 1...

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Economic Anthropology 1) Understand some of the major differences between gifts and commodities, as discussed in lecture. Do gift economies necessarily imply equality and cooperation between social members? Does an object have to be either one or the other? - Gift is a constant exchange process. It might or might not be an equal trade. There are relationships among the participants - Commodities are duty-free. It’s usually one time. participants might not have any relationship - Gift doesn’t imply equality and cooperation o Ongka's big moka 2) Understand the arguments about individual self interest motivating economic action and generating the social good (homo economicus and Adam Smith) as they relate to economic anthropology (e.g., gift-giving, potlatch, etc). - Rational Self interest: do things that will benefit for themselves - The gift-giving o Personal honor o Proof of wealth and status o not necessary harmonious Even when gift giving, we are still doing it for ourselves - “pot latch”: destructive gift-giving 3) Recognize some of the major arguments about money and its transformative effects. Particularly Bohannon on Tiv (in class), and Shipton on Bitter Money (know what Bitter Money among the Luo refers to). - Paul Bohannon and Tiv spheres of exchange o Three spheres of gift: people, prestige, food Tiv only exchange good for good of same sphere o Accumulate goods: Substance good prestige good human good o Symbolic/morally economic o Money would crumble the sphere of exchange When people become accustomed to money, people would consider everything is equivalent Suddenly, one can’t exchange food for clothes, or other exchange Money will lead to symbolic extinction - Parker Shipton and bitter money: cultural response to money. o Two kinds of money Earned money Bitter money Disrupt kinship Money that comes to mean is cursed and would not benefit individual o E.g. money from selling lineage’s land o People are allowed to sell land of the community, but there are community’s rules prohibited this. 1
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Religion and Ritual 4) Why would it be difficult to come up with a universal definition of religion, from an anthropological perspective? - religion conceptualized - religion as culture o Culturally specific - Religion loses its value when examined separately from culture o Not looking at it as real 5) How, briefly, did religion come to be associated solely with belief in Western thought? How is this association challenged by the evangelicals in Jesus Camp and, implicitly, by
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Ant_2_Final_Exam_Review_Sheet - Economic Anthropology 1...

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