Psych 100b

Psych 100b - Psych 100b - Lecture 4/7/2008 1:06:00 PM...

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Psych 100b - Lecture 07/04/2008 15:06:00 4/7/2008 In studies have independent variables that manipulate and dependent variable that measure Using constructs Need precise descriptions about what we mean Operationally define what mean by various terms (moderate amount, study, etc) DVD - methodology Common rules to all studies All different studies share same essential property: strive to avoid false conclusions that observations often lead to Try to ensure that phenomena observe is in fact caused by experimental condition they manipulate 1) develop hypothesis 2) hold rest of environment constant while manipulate thing of interest control – rests at core of all experimental research. o Continuum of control animal studies in lab = almost total control animals in field = little control as increase control in lab, decrease probability that findings will be applicable to real world problems w/ using human subjects – cant be manipulated/controlled as easily as lab animals 1 st isolate important variables 2 nd manipulate independent variables experiment = relationship between individuals sense of fear/anxiety and desire to be w/ others 1
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o independent variable = different presentations of how painful shock will be o high fear and low fear conditions o random assignment to conditions o dependent variable = answers to questionnaires about whether wait alone or w/ group and how strong preference is. o Hypothesis confirmed that subjects, particularly in high fear condition preferred to wait w/ others Kittens visual abilities o Independent variable – deprivation of light and for how long after birth o Dependent variable – pacing, how much time it takes to get through maze o Control group – kittens raised in same way as deprived kittens Set standard of performance against which deprived kittens judged Acts as control for unforeseen variables o Random assignment to conditions o Hypothesis confirmed – deprived do worse in maze Controlled conditions rule out other things that could cause change in dependent variable Correlational design – don’t alter anything but measure independent and dependent variable Experimental design – manipulate independent variable Independent variable (IV) – “cause” o 1. Thing that manipulate, control everything else o 2. Quantitative vs qualitative manipulation Quantitative = how much violent tv watch, different amounts Qualitative = type of violent tv watch, same amount 2
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Kind of IV depends on research question o 3. Levels – at least 2 if only have 1 level of IV ≠ experiment, need something to compare the more levels use, the more the relationship see between two variables functional relationship – need 3 or more levels to see functional patterns o 4. Range - how much between different levels ex) 10 min, 20 min, etc quantitative scatterplot qualitative bar chart
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Psych 100b - Psych 100b - Lecture 4/7/2008 1:06:00 PM...

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