Mueller Notes - Chapter 1 – Criminal and Disciplined...

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Chapter 1 – Criminal and Disciplined Warfare 1. War is about violence and killing. a. Depravation and boredom. b. Disease, lice, prostitutes, family separation, homesickness…etc. 2. Why people fight a. For Violence and Profit i. Thrill and profit ii. Enjoy violence iii. Addiction to violence iv. Serial killers, ex. v. Others – organized war. Circumstances must be right. Activity does not give them pleasure, and may actually cause pain. vi. Some, although they do not need or seek out violence, may enjoy it when the conditions are opportune. Ex. Study in which students were randomly selected to play prison guards and prisoners. vii. This is often found in warfare – “War can be supremely thrilling excitement.” This is true for a lot of soldiers. viii. Many of these people do not need violence and are not addicted to it. ix. Wars seem to be economically profitable for those who participate, both through payment and pillaging. x. Unemployed are more easily recruited than the employed. b. Narcosis i. Liquor or “liquid courage” allows people to be more comfortable doing things that they would not normally feel comfortable doing. Ex. Fraternity hazing c. Coercion i. It is possible to force people to commit violence. ii. Troops whose purpose is to kill people who try to desert or refuse to advance – called file closers iii. WWI - the exits of the trenches were patrolled – no alternative to going forward when ordered to do so. iv. Killing can become a matter of self-defense, once in battle. v. May be the only possibility of survival – something seen particularly between the Germans and Soviets in WWII. vi. To rely entirely on coercion is unwise – however incentives to desert are great at first d. Drill, Discipline, Leadership, and Submission to Authority i. Some people can commit violence, even when they do not enjoy it, are coerced, or drunk, rather many have a tendency to follow the orders of authority. ii. Fighting capacities are likely to be heightened when soldiers have an appropriately nuanced fear, love, and/or respect for their officers. iii. Ex. Milgram study
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e. Honor, Duty, Glory and the Fear of Shame i. These motivations seen among German and Japanese combatants in WWII and soldiers in the Civil War. ii. Associated with the honor phenomenon – acceptance of the notion that there is great shame and humiliation in surrender. f. Love i. The most reliable quality inspiring young people to risk deadly combat is one variously known as “small group loyalty, unit cohesion, primary group solidarity, male bonding, or the buddy system.” ii. Self-sacrifice for others. iii. Love could be used to inspire men to fight and die in combat - used advantageously after WWII. Very important in the formation of disciplined units. “All you need to fight a war is love.” g. Beliefs i. Most studies suggest that ideologies and beliefs are not the most compelling motivations over long term and in combat.
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Mueller Notes - Chapter 1 – Criminal and Disciplined...

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