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Aggression - AGGRESSION Aggression physical or verbal...

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AGGRESSION Aggression – physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone Hostile aggression – (emotional aggression) driven by anger, end in itself (result of hostility) Instrumental aggression – means to an end Causes of Aggression 1. Instinct view Freud: life and death impulse; tendency toward self-destruction Lorenz: benefits, survival 2. Biological theories Serotonin: low→ lower control over impulses Testosterone: bidirectional: aggressive behavior→ increase testosterone; highly aggressive people have high levels 3. Drive Theories (aspects of environment lead to:) motivation or drive to harm others Frustration-Aggression theory (Dollard et al.) frustration, being blocked from reaching goal 4. Social Learning Theory Bandura: Bobo doll studies o After observing adult behavior incidence of aggression increase if adult was rewarded for behavior o Implication-reduced incidence if model a child Learn o Which persons or groups are appropriate targets for aggression o What actions justify/require aggression o In which situations aggression is appropriate 5. Cognitive Theories of Aggression Apprains: how situation is interpreted Social Determinants of Aggression 1. Frustration: blocked from reaching goal a. Original theory: frustration always results in aggression, aggression always a result of frustration (DISPROVEN) b. Displacement may occur: display/express anger at different subject c. Barker, Pembo, and Lewin (1961) Toy Study
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i. Frustrated and long wait→ smash toys, aggressive behavior 1. Created aggressive impulse-displace aggression on toys ii. Not frustrated and no wait→ play 2. Cues for aggression in Environment (automatic thought) a. Weapons effect/mere presence b. Berkowitz and Lefage (1967) i. Teacher/learner paradigm: cognitive task ii. Participant “teacher” was insulted iii. Guns or badminton racquets present iv. Results: teachers give longer shocks if guns present in the room 3. Direct Provocation 4. Media Influence Media Violence and Aggression Laboratory studies – bring people into the lab, have one group watch a violent movie and the other a nonviolent movie and then observe behavior o Children who watched the violent program are more likely to show aggressive behaviors, while the adults are more likely to show aggressive cognitions.
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