America’s 5 Liberal Principles
1. Limited representative (constitution) 2. Individual liberties/freedom 3. Right
to own private property 4. Free market enterprise 5. Separation of church and state
1786; farmers and workers in Massachusetts were angered because they could not pay their
debts as a result of economic crisis. Pointed out weakness of the Articles and need for a strong central gov’t.
The American Republic
gov’t limited by written rules, where representatives make decisions
limits gov’t by allowing branches to check authority, very important in case the masses
capture a branch of gov’t
Separation of Powers
limits gov’t by fragmenting authority. Executive: president chosen by elites, at time of
constitution no term limit. Judicial: SC justices chosen by president, confirmed by senate, serving life terms.
Senate (supreme, 100 members chosen by state elite, 6 year terms, no term limit) and
House of Representatives (lower, 435 members chosen by voters aka property owning white men, 2 year terms,
no term limit)
The Federal System
where power is divided between nation and state, limits power by sharing power, first
used by the Aracoi Indians. National: “delegated” powers i.e. declare war, regulate interstate system, print
money. State: “reserved” powers i.e. education, drinking. Shared: “concurrent”. Needed b/c of our size.
Marbury vs. Madison
1803; Chief Justice John Marshall est. “judicial review” which said court may do more
than resolve conflict. Can strike down, change, or issue new law to correct unconstitutional acts.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
1819; national supremacy, said that national gov’t can impose decisions on states that
are deemed to be “necessary and proper”. Nationally chartered banks, printing paper money.
believed people had “natural and inalienable” rights. “Life, liberty, and property”. People would
obey the gov’t if the gov’t protected their rights. If gov’t doing a bad job
we could replace the gov’t.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
advocated democracy, thought liberty was a natural right, sought out how to keep a
gov’t under control, and thought the best was to do so was through separation of gov’t into three branches.