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Moral Foundations of Politics Book Notes

Moral Foundations of Politics Book Notes - Moral...

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Moral Foundations of Politics Book Notes John Locke: Second Treatise of Government I. Introduction Political power and influence only for “public good” II. State of nature A person is free in action, possessions, etc. and all are equally free. “Workmanship ideal”- what you do or make is yours No one may impair “life, liberty, health, limb, or goods of another.” Everyone may enforce or punish nature’s rules to prevent their infraction Don’t really need society or government? III. State of war More state of nature-protect w/ violence as needed IV. Slavery Free to do whatever under laws of nature V. Property God gives nature to men and therefore, men able to use it. What one uses is his. One’s labor is his VI. Paternal power Parents have power over children to raise, educate, and take care of them till they can do it themselves Children shoulder honor and obey VII. Political/civil society Husband and wife together until all children are grown VIII. Beginning of Political Societies Men cannot be forced to join society-only with consent Majority rule Only under rules of society is engage in it and/or consent IX. Ends of Political society and government Life is dangerous Therefore, join societies for mutual preservation of life, liberty, and property Give up natural law for societal law to advance their peace, safety and public good X. Forms of a commonwealth Majority rule always May make any laws, punishments, and new forms of government as long as majority rule applies XVII. Usurpation When taking over (conquest), may not subject new citizens to rules until they consent. = tyranny XVIII. Tyranny Exercise of power beyond right Use of power not for the good of those under it, but for one’s own advantages Force only available against unjust and unlawful force XIX. Dissolution of government
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When government resolves, people return to original community (not Nature, but their first formed community) May then erect new government, or other action as they see fit Jeremy Bentham: An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Ch.1 The Principle of Utility: “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure .” o Determine what ought to do and what shall do. o “Systems which attempt to question it, deal in sounds instead of sense, in caprice instead of reason, in darkness instead of light.” Principle of Utility o Promotes or opposes happiness o Applies to all individual actions and thus that of government Utility o Produces benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, etc. o Prevents mishaps, pain, evil, unhappiness, etc. Interest of the community o Community is a fictitious body o Thus, community interest is the sum of the interests of its members (selfish) Ch.2 Principles Adverse to that of Utility: Asceticism o Self punishment o Moralists and religionists Motivated by hope and fear Hope o Prospect of pleasure Fear o Prospect of pain by God o Fear more powerful than hope o Require consent
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Moral Foundations of Politics Book Notes - Moral...

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