Outline for bullet #3 on Study Guide
“The mid-term exam is intended to assess your knowledge of the material we have covered in class thus
far, as well as your own engagement with the issues we have discussed. Specifically:
Bullet #3: The Crusades and the Israeli/Palestinian situation as examples of conflict between
Abraham’s children (Course Reader, pp. 125-161) – key facts historical context, major developments;
understanding of how the participants in these conflicts are faithful or not faithful to their Abrahamic
tradition and legacy.”
The supposed “Holy City,” Jerusalem, has been through several internal battles. The
battles have primarily been between the Jews, Christians, and Muslim religions. It has been said, the first
Crusade began with Pope Urban II speech. According to claims, Urban encouraged the Europeans to stop
fighting amongst each other and instead “aid their fellow Christians in Anatolia who had been subject to
Muslim Turks for over 20 years.” Also the Pope suggested that they should go to Jerusalem and liberate
the tomb of Christ from Islam. In the spring of 1096, after the Popes speech the Western Crusaders, also
known as the Franks, and pilgrimages set off on a long journey to Jerusalem.
The Crusaders journey to Jerusalem from Europe was very long. Especially since the Crusaders were
killing Jews on the way to Jerusalem, since they believed it was the Jews who killed Jesus. Thus, many of
the Crusaders died on the way to Jerusalem.
When the Crusaders finally arrived in Jerusalem they
surrounded the walls and eventually defeated the Muslims and the Jews. As a result, of the Crusade
conquest, there were thousands of massacres; rivers, and streets were filled with blood. Furthermore,
Jerusalem, had an awful stench of died bodies for months. Needless, to say Godfrey (the leader of the
Christians/Franks) at that time did not encourage forgiveness or abide by the Christian moral of love.
Instead, their love for God and Jesus was turned into violence and atrocities. This seemed to be an
ongoing theme throughout Christian history.
After the Crusaders officially conquered Jerusalem in 1099, they felt the Christians, who lived in
Jerusalem before the conquest should leave, since they were assumed to be content with the idea of
In October 1187, under Muslim leader Saladin the Muslims conquered Jerusalem once more. However,
Saladin, was much kinder to the Christians then the Crusaders had been to the Muslims. Saladin allowed
the Christians to be set free and expelled from Jerusalem for a low cost ransom price. Thus, in 1187
Jerusalem became the Muslims once again.
Notes from the Reader pages 125-161: