3560 final notes - CHAPTER 9 Prejudice: a negative attitude...

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CHAPTER 9 Prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group; the perceiver “prejudges” the targets—disliking them only b/c of their group membership Discrimination: negative, harmful behavior toward people based on their group membership; possible consequence of prejudice Genocide: attempting to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder Some people possess unfavorable implicit attitudes ( individuals’ automatic/unconscious evaluations of a target) toward disadvantaged groups. Dovidio and Gaertner proposed that many White Americans have ambivalent feelings toward minorities such as African & Hispanic Americans; Whites often support equal opportunities and regard themselves as unprejudiced and nondiscriminatory, but simultaneously harbor some neg beliefs & hostile feelings toward Labeled this new prejudice: aversive racism: (b/c White Americans) do not consider themselves to be prejudiced and would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive (unpleasant/upsetting) Racial Arguments Scale (RAS): indirect measure of prejudice in which respondents rate how well arguments support positive or negative conclusions about an out-group. People who scored high exhibited more negative behavior toward Blacks then did people who scored low. Stereotypes: individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes; they quality as one kind of schema —schemas that represent human groups; stereotypes “efficiently” provide use w/ info about target persons that can guide behavior; they allow us to make rapid inferences about target persons Two Costs of Stereotypes 1. Oversimplification: we may assume too much uniformity; out-group homogeneity effect: tendency for perceivers to overestimate the similarity w/in groups to which they don’t belong; when we rely on stereotypes to categorize & draw inferences about targets, we frequently make assumptions about them that are wrong 2. Excessive Negativity: contain negative traits, may refer to groups that are believed to be competing w/ the perceiver’s group for desired resources; being in bad mood Stereotypes affect what perceivers notice about members of the group; perceivers are sensitive to, and looking for info that confirms the stereotype Affect how perceivers interpret the behavior of people in the group; actions that are ambiguous will be interpreted as consistent w/ expectations Self-fulfilling Prophesies: sequence of events where (1) a perceiver’s stereotype or expectancy about a target influences the perceiver’s behavior toward target, and (2) perceiver’s behavior toward target then elicits the expected behavior from target In essence, the perceiver has acted in a way to make his own prophesy come true Previous data suggests that stereotypes can produce expectancies about a target individual, which can then alter the perceiver’s actions in ways that elicit the expected behavior from the target. Subliminal Priming Procedure:
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course PSYC 3560 taught by Professor Mitchelson during the Spring '08 term at Auburn University.

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3560 final notes - CHAPTER 9 Prejudice: a negative attitude...

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