Bio - Lecture 3

Bio - Lecture 3 - Bio Lecture 2B - Organic compounds...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Bio Lecture 2B - Organic compounds -Sometimes hydrocarbons can form a ring structure -they are usually represented wihtout writing the "C" -Each corner represents a carbon with the maximum number of bonds --Hydrogen unless otherwise stated -Functional groups are a specific group of atoms bonded to a hydrocarbon core. -Each functional group has a unique chemical property independant of what the hydrocarbon core is. Large molecules made of many functional groups are called macromolecules -Proteins -Nucleic acids -Lipids -Carbohydrates Macromolecules are polymers (chains of smaller molecules or monomers) -Macromolecules are generally made by condensation reaction -Macromolecules are generally broken down by hydrolysis. Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecule in nature They are made of C, H, and O (usually in a 1:2:1 ratio) The simplest forms are monosaccharides or single-ringed sugars (usually have an "-ose") The most important ones are: Sucrose: Glucose-Fructose (table sugar) Lactose: Galactose-Glucose (milk sugar) Maltose: Glucose-Glucose (malt sugar) Oligosaccharides consist of a few sugar molecules -A disaccharide is a type of oligosaccharide Polysaccharide consist of many sugars (usually forms of glucose) Examples being glycogen, starch and cellulose Each of these are made of glucose polymers They differ in the angle of the bonds between glucose monomers
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Bio - Lecture 3 - Bio Lecture 2B - Organic compounds...

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