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Intro to Psychology Notes

Intro to Psychology Notes - INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY...

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I NTRODUCTION TO P SYCHOLOGY N OTES W HAT IS PSYCHOLOGY ? Four domains of psychology: Cognitive (making decisions) Physical (drug affects, stress) Social (relating to people, interactions, stereotypes) Emotional (personality, feelings, self-esteem) Goals of psychologists: Describe Explain Predict Control H ISTORICAL P ERSPECTIVES Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology lab in 1879 Structuralism – Goal is to break down consciousness into its most fundamental elements using introspection which is describing something exactly using technical terms ( Titchener ) Functionalism – we should look at the purpose of a given behavior, not its structure ( William James ) M ODERN P ERSPECTIVES Psychoanalytic – behavior is directed by forces in one’s personality which are often hidden or unconscious ( Sigmund Freud ) Behaviorism – behavior is shaped and controlled by one’s environment…no free will (Ian Pavlov – classical conditioning; John Watson – continued classical conditioning; B.F. Skinner – operant conditioning “reinforcement & punishment”) Humanism – behavior is guided by one’s self-image, by subjective perceptions of the world, and by needs for personal growth ( Abraham Maslow ) Psychobiological / Biopsychological – human behavior is the result of internal physical, chemical, and biological processes; brain processes, personality, drug use Cognitive – behavior can be understood in terms of the mental processing of information; interpretations, reasoning Evolutionary – behavior is shaped by our species’ genetic heritage Sociocultural – behavior is shaped by the social and cultural environment in which we live
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S OCIAL P SYCHOLOGY Cognitive schemas Stereotypes o In-groups vs. out-groups is the idea of “us vs. them” each person has an in-group that they are a part of (skin color, culture, etc.) and everyone else is in the out-group o Minimal Groups Paradigm: We can randomly divide people into groups and they will find a way to be prejudiced against and/or discriminate against members of the out-group o Prejudice – a negative attitude toward members of a certain group o Discrimination – treating people differently based on group membership Social Script (steps expected during events of life) Attributions (Why did he/she do that?) Internal – the person’s behavior is due to some personal characteristic (intelligence, personality, grace, etc.) External – the person’s behavior is due to outside factors (the environment, luck, other people, etc.) Self-Serving bias : We tend to make attributions that put ourselves in a good light Fundamental attribution error : We generally assume that others’ behavior is due to internal characteristics Principles of Attraction Attractiveness : “What is beautiful is good.” o Matching hypothesis – people with similar attractiveness end up together Similarity – “Birds of a feather flock together.” o People with similar interests are more likely to spend more time together
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Intro to Psychology Notes - INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY...

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