Study Guide Chapter Five-2

Study Guide Chapter Five-2 - Study Guide Chapter Five...

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Study Guide Chapter Five – Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet 1. We need to reach the idea that what you eat matters, that it is much more than something that tastes good and fills the tummy and that provides calories for energy. We must understand that you receive all the nutrients and compounds needed to run your body through foods/beverages. 2. Six classes of nutrients: a. Three that provide energy (kilocalories) to the body: i. Carbohydrates, Protein and Fat b. Three that do not provide energy to the body: i. Vitamins, minerals, and water 3. Carbohydrates – made up of sugars (the monosaccharides) a. Monosaccharides – one sugar unit – there are three kinds: i. Glucose, fructose (found a lot in fruit), and galactose (found as part of milk sugar) b. Disaccharides – two of the above sugars are combined together – in each case one of the two is glucose which helps you see how important glucose is i. Lactose – milk sugar – glucose and galactose ii. Sucrose – white, granulated table sugar – glucose and fructose iii. Maltose – mainly found in your intestine when starch breaks down – glucose + glucose c. Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) – long strings of glucose only i. Glycogen - how we store extra glucose ii. Starch – how plants store glucose iii. Fiber – structural parts of plants d. All carbs are 4 kcal / gram so if a food has 6 grams of carb in it, then it has 24 kcal of energy e. Sugars – we are eating way too much – sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are the main problem – people are eating between 22 and 30 teaspoons of sugar a day – book suggests no more than 8 tsp a day (6 for women and 9 for men is another recommendation) - keep under 10% of kcalories eaten – we did an activity and found the teaspoons of sugar by dividing by 4 (just happens to be the same number as kcal/gram – a lot of it is ‘hidden’ in our diet – most people have no idea that sodas and such are liquid candy – about 9 -10 tsp in a 12 ounce can f. Sugar substitutes : i. Aspartame (Nutrasweet/Equal), Saccharin (Sweet N Low), Sucralose (Splenda), among others – I suggest that you keep these very low to none in your diet ii.
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