lecture outlines - I. General Features of True Experimental...

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Unformatted text preview: I. General Features of True Experimental Research 0. A. Primary 1. B. Manipulation 0. Independent Variable (IV): has levels, conditions, or treatments defined by the researcher 1. Dependent Variable (DV): measured by the researcher 0. C. Control 1. Methods to Control Variables: 0. 1. Control as Condition 1. 2. Randomization 2. 3. Elimination and removal 3. 4. Matching 2. D. Research is Explanatory 4. May be able to test causality: 5. 1. co-occurrence 6. 2. sequence (time order) 7. 3. other possible causes must be eliminated 3. E. Sampling is almost always non-probability 4. F. Data is primarily quantitative II. True Experiment Designs: 5. R = Random Assignment 6. X = Independent Variable 7. O = Observation A. Post-Test Only Control Group X 1 O 1 R X 2 O 2 B. Pre-Test, Post-Test Control Group O 1 X 1 O 3 R O 2 X 2 O 4 C. Solomon 4 Group- pre-test/ post-test & control group- the more variations in treatments, the more you will be able to rule out extraneous influences O1 X1 O3 O2 X2 O4 R X3 O5 X4 O6 D. Factorial Designs - multiple independent variables, that may or may not be manipulated X 1 O 1 X 2 R X 3 O 2 X 4 II. More on factorial designs- most experiments that we will see 8. Notation: 8. We completed a 2 X 3 X 2 design 9. 2 = gender (cant be manipulated) 10.3 = interaction type (flirtatious, argumentative, control) 11.2 = drinking (drunk or sober)- you will not see diagrams in research articles 2. We completed a 2 (gender: male versus female) X 3 (interaction type: flirtatious, argumentative, or control) X 2 (drinking: drunk or sober) design where the first factor was between subjects and the second and third factors were within subjects. 3. Within versus between subjects- between means that something wasnt manipulated. - in this case, the experimenter can only manipulate 2 of the conditions. Gender can not be manipulated. III. Elements of Good Experiments 4. A. Maxmincon principle- when people design true experiments, they maximize the variation & minimize error- capture a lot of variations & minimize extraneous conditions- randomization assumes you can get rid of extraneous conditions- sometimes the more variations you introduce, the more extraneous conditions present 5. B. Pilot test- mini study to make sure that the manipulation of the independent variable works- make sure people will be behaving how you think they will be 6. C. Manipulation checks- occurs after the manipulation of the study- to get an assessment from your participants to see if manipulation worked (ask how they behaved)- in the write up of a journal article, they will include the pilot study and manipulation check 7. D. Resisting the tendency to infer long term effects from short 7....
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lecture outlines - I. General Features of True Experimental...

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