midterm review - Four Ways of Knowing: - traditional -...

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Four Ways of Knowing: - traditional - authoritative - personal inquiry - empirical Epistemology: Basic Research: - interested broadly in a phenomena & testing a hypothesis - applied to a large class of individuals Applied Research: - generalizing to a specific group of individuals - focused on the uniqueness of the group Why we never find the “truth” when we conduct science: - b/c we are never finding answers - we find generalizations 3 Goals of science: 1) Consciously and systematically identify and test patterns 2) Seek the largest sample of observations possible from which to examine patterns 3) Seek to identify if other causes explain a given phenomena Paradigm: - a model or framework for observation and understanding that shapes both what we see and how we understand it - four paradigms of knowing can be found in communication research: positivist, systems, interpretive, and critical Deductive Reasoning: - The logical model in which specific hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principals. Inductive Reasoning: - The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations. Construct: - are concepts that you create - theoretical creations that are based on observations but that can not be directly or indirectly observed Conceptualization: - The mental process whereby imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific. Theory: - a systematic explanation for observations that relate to a particular aspect of life - can deal with causal explanation, functional explanation, or understanding 4 Values of Theory: - Explanation
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- Prediction - Implementation Primary Resource: - a source in which a person has done the research for first hand, and then makes generalizations from that research - best source to use - scholarly journal articles, scholarly texts, conference papers Secondary Resource: - a source in which the author did not do the research herself - a generalization and explanation of a primary resource - literature reviews in journals, book chapters Sections of a Scholarly Journal Article: - title - abstract - rationale/ literature review - method - results - discussion o limitations of study o future research - references Variable: - must have at least two values (e.g., drunk or not drunk: 1 drink- 10 drinks) - something that varies o X Y o dependent variable: the outcome variable (Y) o independent variable: a variable that has influence on the dependent variable (X) Quantitative Variable: - Continuous - Variables that have an infinite number of values - Ex. Salary, it has not upper bound Qualitative Variable: - discrete - has a set number of values, limited - Ex. grades, A B C D E F - We determine the upper bound in research studies Manipulated Variable: - the researcher has control over that values - you can control things such as communication and consumption Observed Variable: - not manipulated
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- as a researcher, you just watch people and observe actions - can’t manipulate age or biological sex Extraneous Variable: - something that influences the variables
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course SPCM 3700 taught by Professor Samp during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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midterm review - Four Ways of Knowing: - traditional -...

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