HANDOUT 1 – 10/11/16 PERSONALITY Personality can be defined as the consistent psychological patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with others and the situations they encounter. Personality is defined as relatively stable and enduring characteristics that determine our thoughts, feelings and behavior. Personality is a complex phenomenon and there are various perspectives of personality construct. One common and simple definition of Personality is: It is the consistent psychological patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with others and the situations they encounter. PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS There are several factors that determine the formation or shaping of our personality. Among them the three major factors are: Heredity, Environment and Situation. i) Heredity The genetic components inherited from our parents at the time of conception determine strongly the personality characteristics of an individual. The color, height, physical statutory, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition, inheritable diseases etc are considered to be inherited from our parents. Research studies conducted on identical twins that were reared in different places, temperament of young children, longitudinal studies on the job satisfaction of employees over long period of time and across different situation reveal that the heredity plays a substantial role in determining the behavior of individuals. If all personality characteristics were completely dictated by heredity, they 1 | P a g e
would be fixed at birth and no amounts of experience could alter them. ii) Environment The culture in which people are brought up in their lives and they type of socialization process such as family’s child rearing practices, socio economic status of the family, number of children in a family, birth order, education of the parents, friends and peer group pressures, religious practices, the type of schooling and recreational activities, pastime behavior etc play a critical role in shaping our personalities. For example, our parents mould the character of all children, almost from birth by expressing and expecting their children to conform to their own values through role modeling and through various reinforcement strategies such as rewards and punishments. Research studies reveal that the birth order – the difference between first born children and later born children determine certain key personality characteristics, that is, first born tend to exhibit more ambitious, and hard working, more cooperative, more prone to guilt and anxiety and less openly aggressive. Both the heredity and environment are equally important in determining personality characteristics of an individual.
- Fall '16
- Laura Mamuli
- Personality Psychology, Full Coverage On Personality, Personality characteristics, key personality characteristics