JSA_1_Philosophy_of_Science_08

JSA_1_Philosophy_of_Science_08 - Scientific Reasoning and...

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Scientific Reasoning and Scientific  Revolutions Audio of this lecture will be available at: http://www.bu.edu/cgs/current/resources-recorded-lectures/resources.html
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Reasoning Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC)  Prior Analytics ,   Posterior Analytics Distinguished two types or argument Deduction  from premises to results (formal) Generalization , “ induction” from examples  induction” from examples  (mental)
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Types of Argument Deduction ex.  Arguing from the general to  particulars.    All crows are black   This crow is black Induction ex.  Arguing from particulars to the  general.     Many crows are black   All crows are  black
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“Arts” versus Science Perceived superiority of reason and the  limitations of  ``art’’ (practical activity) - with the exception of medicine   Stagnation of Scientific Progress in the  West What was missing?  Technology for  experiments
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``Science’’ Traditional branches of knowledge:  the seven liberal arts ’: Trivium  (grammar, logic, rhetoric)       +  Quadrivium (Arithmetic  =  number  Geometry  =  number in space    Music  =  number in time    Astronomy = number in  motion)
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Roger Bacon (1290-1292) Sought unity of philosophy, natural research and theology –  Listed  sources of error  in reasoning: • false authority, habit, prejudice, –  Elements of  ``experimental science’’ •  verification by direct experience  of      conclusions deduced from principles • investigate ``secrets’’ of nature ( principles, laws • allows knowledge of the past  and  the future ( prediction )
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Bacon’s Classification of  Knowledge www.mrrena.com/2006/teleology.shtml
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Examples of “Errors’’ “This is a one way street” Because there ought to be one here         (appeal to morality) • I feel there is a one way street here  (appeal to intuition) • I have driven here more than you and I’m  sure (appeal to authority)
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 Collect facts as  data  Perform  analyses    Then draw general  conclusions  Ex. Darwin said he
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course NS 102 taught by Professor Lavalli during the Spring '08 term at BU.

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JSA_1_Philosophy_of_Science_08 - Scientific Reasoning and...

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