Pharm PP Ch50 - Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology...

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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Introduction to Clinical PharmacologyChapter 50Antineoplastic Drugs Introduction to Clinical PharmacologyChapter 50Antineoplastic Drugs
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cell Cycle–Specific Drugs: Actions and UsesCell Cycle–Specific Drugs: Actions and UsesPlant alkaloids:Vinca alkaloids: Interfere with amino acid production in S phase and formation of microtubules in M phaseTaxanes: Interfere in M phase with microtubulesPodophyllotoxins: Cells are unable to divide since cells are stopped during S and G2phases by the podophyllotoxins
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cell Cycle–Specific Drugs: Actions and Uses (cont.)Cell Cycle–Specific Drugs: Actions and Uses (cont.)Antimetabolites: Interfere with synthesis of RNA and DNA, make it impossible for cancerous cell to divide into two daughter cells Drugs are used to treat:Leukemia, lymphoma, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Actions and UsesCell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Actions and UsesAlkylating agents:Change cell to more alkaline environment, which in turn damages the cell Antineoplastic antibiotics: Interfere with DNA and RNA synthesis, delaying or inhibiting cell division Miscellaneous antineoplastic drugs:A number of drugs are used for antineoplastic actions, do not belong to any one category
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Adverse ReactionsCell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Adverse ReactionsNausea and vomiting from highly emetic drugs or potential of IV extravasation of irritating solutionsAdverse reactions common to antineoplastic drugs:Bone marrow suppression; stomatitis; diarrhea; hair loss Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia may cause cycles of chemotherapy to be delayed until blood cell counts can be raised Damage gonads, causing fertility problems
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Contraindications and PrecautionsCell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Contraindications and PrecautionsAntineoplastic drugs are contraindicated in patients: With leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, serious infections, renal disease, and hypersensitivity to drug; during pregnancy or lactation Used cautiously in: Patients with renal or hepatic impairment, active infection, and debilitating illnesses; those who have completed treatment with other antineoplastic drugs or radiation therapy
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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Interactions Cell Cycle–Nonspecific Drugs: Interactions Interactant drugEffect of interaction Plant alkaloidsDigoxin Decreased serum level of digoxin Phenytoin Increased risk for seizures Oral anticoagulants Prolonged bleeding
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