AP 1 Lec 3- Chemistry of Life

AP 1 Lec 3- Chemistry of Life - ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY I...

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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I LECTURE 3: CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Prof. Magidah M. Alaudi, M.Sc. [email protected]
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Atoms, Molecules and Bonds Atoms: smallest stable units of matter Contain subatomic particles: Protons = positive charge; weight of approximately 1 Dalton Neutrons = no charge; weight similar to protons Electrons = negative charge; weigh 1/1836 th Dalton Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus; electrons occupy electron cloud
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Atomic number: proton number Atomic mass: protons and neutrons Isotopes are elements with same numbers of protons but different numbers of neutron: C12, C13, C14 etc. Radioisotopes: Tools used in research and medicine Used against localized cancer Diagnostic Imaging Will cause damage to living tissue
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Energy levels/Electron shells The outermost electron shell determines the reactivity of the element. 1 ST SHELL holds 2 electrons 2 nd SHELL holds 8 electrons
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Atoms and Energy Levels
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Atoms Combine Through Chemical Reactions Molecule : a chemical structure consisting of molecules held together by covalent bonds Compound : a chemical substance composed of atoms of two or more elements There are three types of bond: Ionic Covalent Hydrogen
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Ionic Bonds: attraction between positive cations and negative anions Covalent Bonds: Single, double or triple bonds Non-polar: equal sharing of electrons Polar: unequal sharing of electrons
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Hydrogen bonds are weak forces that affect the shape and properties of compounds Polar covalent bonds that occur when hydrogen covalently bonds with another element
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Hydrogen Bonds
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Matter and Chemical Notation Matter is anything that takes up
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