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Chapter%2019 - Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics Review...

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1 Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics Review Chapter 5 in your textbook for better understanding!
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2 List of vocabulary that will be used in this chapter… System Surrounding Universe E = change in energy H = change in enthalpy Exothermic Endothermic Isothermal Spontaneous Non-spontaneous S = change in entropy Entropy Reversible Irreversible Internal Energy Enthalpy q = heat transferred w = work energy State Function
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3 Topics Overview: - Entropy - Second Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of the universe increases for spontaneous processes - Third Law of Thermodynamics Entro py at absolute zero is zero. S (0 K) = 0 - Free Energy A criterion for spontaneity Its relationship with equilibrium constant The entropy of the universe increases for spontaneous processes A criterion for spontaneity Its relationship with equilibrium constant – a measure of disorder or randomness G
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4 Chemical Thermodynamics Chapter 14 Speed of a reaction – reaction rate We know that rate is related to an energy term called activation energy . Chapter 15 Speed of two opposing reactions – equilibrium . Since rate is related to energy, obviously, the equilibrium is also related to energy! In this chapter, we will learn more about energy involved in a chemical process! Thermodynamics will talk about the extent and the direction of a process. But, it does not talk about the rate!
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5 Things to Recall A brief review of Chapter 5 is necessary. Universe = System + Surroundings Any portion of the universe that we choose or focus our attention on. The rest of the universe beyond the system. Consider a chemical reaction in a beaker… The chemical components are the system The solvents and the container and beyond are the surroundings .
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6 Therefore, the total energy of the universe is a constant. Things to Recall - Contd. .. First Law of Thermodynamics: E univ = E sys + E surr = 0 Energy can, however, be converted from one form to another or transferred from a system to the surroundings or vice versa. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Law of Conservation of Energy
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7 Things to Recall – Contd… E ( Internal Energy) = Potential energy + Kinetic energy The energy of an object has due to its relationship to another object. Chemical energy is a form of potential energy: Atoms in a chemical bond have energy due to their relationship to each other. The energy that the objects get or have due to their motion. Atoms move through space. Molecules rotate. Atoms in bonds vibrate.
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11 We cannot determine E, instead we work with E. E = energy difference between initial and final state of the system E = E final - E initial The internal energy (E) is a State Function State Function: Parameter that depend only on the current state of a system. For changes in state functions, we need to know only the initial
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Chapter%2019 - Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics Review...

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