Section 4 - 367 - 393 We Affiliate for 4 basic...

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Sheet1 Page 1 367 - 393 We Affiliate for 4 basic psychological reasons - Obtain positive stimulation - Receive emotional support - Gain attention - Permit social comparison Social Comparison - involves comparing our beliefs, feelings and behaviors with those of other people Each of us has our own range of optimal range of social contact sexual strategies theory - mating strategies and preferences reflect inherited tendencies, shaped over the ages in response to different types of adaptive problems that we faced social structure theory - proposes that men and women display different mating preferences because society directs them into different social roles Sex differences. ... Evolution or Social roles??? situations that induce fear increase people's need to affiliate need for achievement - a positive desire to accomplish tasks and compete successfully with standards of excellence Achievement goal theory - focuses on the manner in which success is defined both by the individual and within the achievement situation itself mastery orientation - the focus is on personal improvement, giving maximum effort and perfecting new kills ego orientation - the goal is to outperform others (with as little effort as possible) motivational climate - encourages or rewards either a mastery approach of an ego approach to defining success Mastery goals - focus on the desire to master a task and learn knowledge//skills ego approach goals - competitive orientation, focuses on being judged relative to others ego-avoidance goals - center on avoiding negative judgments by oneself or others Approach//approach. ..... BAS --> activated by positive arousal, reward, gratification behavioral activation system BIS --> roused by negative things inhibition left-hemisphere - positive ---- right - negative Fundamental Emotional patterns - innate emotional reactions wired biologically into our systems
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Sheet1 Page 2 Cultural display rules - dictate when and how particular emotions are to be expressed Facial expressions for basic emotions almost universally recognized in all cultures instrumental behaviors - directed at achieving some emotion-relevant goal emotion physiology regulated by limbic system 2 paths --- conscious -- cortex unconscious -- amygdala James-Lange Somatic theory - our bodily reactions determine the subjective emotion we experience Cannon-Bard Theory - proposes that the subjective experience of emotion and physiological arousal do not cause one another but instead are independent responses to an emotion-arousing situation facial feedback hypothesis two-factor theory of emotion - the intensity of physiological arousal tells us how strongly we are feeling something, but situational cues give us the information to
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Cross during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

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Section 4 - 367 - 393 We Affiliate for 4 basic...

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